Information

18.3: Digestion and Absorption - Biology


Indigestion

The process of digestion does not always go as it should. Many people suffer from indigestion, or dyspepsia, a condition of impaired digestion. Symptoms may include upper abdominal fullness or pain, heartburn, nausea, belching, or some combination of these symptoms. The majority of cases of indigestion occur without evidence of an organic disease that is likely to explain the symptoms. Anxiety or certain foods or medications (such as aspirin) may be contributing factors in these cases. In other cases, indigestion is a symptom of an organic disease, most often gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or gastritis. In a small minority of cases, indigestion is a symptom of a peptic ulcer of the stomach or duodenum, usually caused by a bacterial infection. Very rarely, indigestion is a sign of cancer.

An occasional bout of indigestion is usually nothing to worry about, especially in people less than 55 years of age. However, if you suffer frequent or chronic indigestion, it’s a good idea to see a doctor. If an underlying disorder such as GERD or an ulcer is causing indigestion, this can and should be treated. If no organic disease is discovered, the doctor can recommend lifestyle changes or treatments to help prevent or soothe the symptoms of acute indigestion. Lifestyle changes might include modifications in eating habits, such as eating more slowly, eating smaller meals, or avoiding fatty foods. You also might be advised to refrain from taking certain medications, especially on an empty stomach. The use of antacids or other medications to relieve symptoms may also be recommended

Digestion

Digestion of food is a form of catabolism, in which the food is broken down into small molecules that the body can absorb and use for energy, growth, and repair. Digestion occurs when food is moved through the digestive system. It begins in the mouth and ends in the small intestine. The final products of digestion are absorbed from the digestive tract, primarily in the small intestine. There are two different types of digestion that occur in the digestive system: mechanical digestion and chemical digestion. Figure (PageIndex{2}) summarizes the roles played by different digestive organs in mechanical and chemical digestion, both of which are described in detail in the text.

Mechanical Digestion

Mechanical digestion is a physical process in which food is broken into smaller pieces without becoming changed chemically. It begins with your first bite of food and continues as you chew food with your teeth into smaller pieces. The process of mechanical digestion continues in the stomach. This muscular organ churns and mixes the food it contains, an action that breaks any solid food into still smaller pieces.

Although some mechanical digestion also occurs in the intestines, it is mostly completed by the time food leaves the stomach. At that stage, food in the GI tract has been changed to the thick semi-fluid called chyme. Mechanical digestion is necessary so that chemical digestion can be effective. Mechanical digestion tremendously increases the surface area of food particles so they can be acted upon more effectively by digestive enzymes.

Chemical Digestion

Chemical digestion is the biochemical process in which macromolecules in food are changed into smaller molecules that can be absorbed into body fluids and transported to cells throughout the body. Substances in food that must be chemically digested include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates must be broken down into simple sugars, proteins into amino acids, lipids into fatty acids and glycerol, and nucleic acids into nitrogen bases and sugars. Some chemical digestion takes place in the mouth and stomach, but most of it occurs in the first part of the small intestine (duodenum).

Digestive Enzymes

Chemical digestion could not occur without the help of many different digestive enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze or speed up biochemical reactions. Digestive enzymes are secreted by exocrine glands or by the mucosal layer of the epithelium lining the gastrointestinal tract. In the mouth, digestive enzymes are secreted by salivary glands. The lining of the stomach secretes enzymes, as does the lining of the small intestine. Many more digestive enzymes are secreted by exocrine cells in the pancreas and carried by ducts to the small intestine. Table (PageIndex{1}) lists several important digestive enzymes, the organs and/or glands that secrete them, and the compounds they digest. You can read more about them in the text.

Table (PageIndex{1}): Digestive Enzymes

Digestive Enzyme

Organ, Glands That Secretes It

Compound It Digests

Amylase

Salivary Glands, Pancreas

Amylose (Polysaccharide)

Sucrase

Small Intestine

Sucrose (Disaccharide)

Lactase

Small Intestine

Lactose (Disaccharide)

Lipase

Salivary Glands, Pancreas

Lipid

Pepsin

Stomach

Protein

Trypsin

Pancreas

Protein

Chymotrypsin

Pancreas

Protein

Deoxyribonuclease

Pancreas

DNA

Ribonuclease

Pancreas

RNA

Nuclease

Small Intestine

Small Nucleic Acids

Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates

About 80 percent of digestible carbohydrates in a typical Western diet are in the form of the plant polysaccharide amylose, which consists mainly of long chains of glucose and is one of two major components of starch. Additional dietary carbohydrates include the animal polysaccharide glycogen, along with some sugars, which are mainly disaccharides.

To chemically digest amylose and glycogen, the enzyme amylase is required. The chemical digestion of these polysaccharides begins in the mouth, aided by amylase in saliva. Saliva also contains mucus, which lubricates the food, and hydrogen carbonate, which provides the ideal alkaline conditions for amylase to work. Carbohydrate digestion is completed in the small intestine, with the help of amylase secreted by the pancreas. In the digestive process, polysaccharides are reduced in length by the breaking of bonds between glucose monomers. The macromolecules are broken down to shorter polysaccharides and disaccharides, resulting in progressively shorter chains of glucose. The end result is molecules of the simple sugars glucose and maltose (which consists of two glucose molecules), both of which can be absorbed by the small intestine.

Other sugars are digested with the help of different enzymes produced by the small intestine. For example, sucrose, or table sugar, is a disaccharide that is broken down by the enzyme sucrase to form glucose and fructose, which are readily absorbed by the small intestine. Digestion of the sugar lactose, which is found in milk, requires the enzyme lactase, which breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose, which are then absorbed by the small intestine. Fewer than half of all adults produce sufficient lactase to be able to digest lactose. Those who cannot are said to be lactose intolerant.

Chemical Digestion of Proteins

Proteins consist of polypeptides, which must be broken down into their constituent amino acids before they can be absorbed. Protein digestion occurs in the stomach and small intestine through the action of three primary enzymes: pepsin, secreted by the stomach; and trypsin and chymotrypsin secreted by the pancreas. The stomach also secretes hydrochloric acid, making the contents highly acidic, which is required for pepsin to work. Trypsin and chymotrypsin in the small intestine require an alkaline environment to work. Bile from the liver and bicarbonate from the pancreas neutralize the acidic chyme as it empties into the small intestine. After pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin break down proteins into peptides, these are further broken down into amino acids by other enzymes called peptidases, also secreted by the pancreas.

Chemical Digestion of Lipids

The chemical digestion of lipids begins in the mouth. The salivary glands secrete the digestive enzyme lipase, which breaks down short-chain lipids into molecules consisting of two fatty acids. A tiny amount of lipid digestion may take place in the stomach, but most lipid digestion occurs in the small intestine.

Digestion of lipids in the small intestine occurs with the help of another lipase enzyme from the pancreas as well as bile secreted by the liver. Bile is required for the digestion of lipids because lipids are oily and do not dissolve in the watery chyme. Bile emulsifies, or breaks up, large globules of food lipids into much smaller ones, called micelles, much as dish detergent breaks up grease. The micelles provide a great deal more surface area to be acted upon by lipase and also point the hydrophilic (“water-loving”) heads of the fatty acids outward into the watery chyme. Lipase can then access and break down the micelles into individual fatty acid molecules.

Chemical Digestion of Nucleic Acids

Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) in foods are digested in the small intestine with the help of both pancreatic enzymes and enzymes produced by the small intestine itself. Pancreatic enzymes called ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease break down RNA and DNA, respectively, into smaller nucleic acids. These, in turn, are further broken down into nitrogen bases and sugars by small intestine enzymes called nucleases.

Chemical Digestion by Gut Flora

The human gastrointestinal tract is normally inhabited by trillions of bacteria, some of which contribute to digestion. Here are just two of dozens of examples:

  1. The most common carbohydrate in plants, which is cellulose, cannot be digested by the human digestive system. However, tiny amounts of cellulose are digested by bacteria in the large intestine.
  2. Certain bacteria in the small intestine help digest lactose, which many adults cannot otherwise digest. As a byproduct of this process, the bacteria produce lactic acid, which increases the release of digestive enzymes and the absorption of minerals such as calcium and iron.

Absorption

When digestion is finished, it results in many simple nutrient molecules that must go through the process of absorption from the GI tract by blood or lymph so they can be used by cells throughout the body. A few substances are absorbed in the stomach and large intestine. For example, water is absorbed in both of these organs, and some minerals and vitamins are also absorbed in the large intestine. However, about 95 percent of nutrient molecules are absorbed in the small intestine. The absorption of the majority of these molecules takes place in the second part of the small intestine, called the jejunum. However, there are a few exceptions. For example, iron is absorbed in the duodenum, and vitamin B12 is absorbed in the last part of the small intestine, called the ileum. After being absorbed in the small intestine, nutrient molecules are transported to other parts of the body for storage or further chemical modification. For example, amino acids are transported to the liver to be used for protein synthesis.

The epithelial tissue lining the small intestine is specialized for absorption. It has many wrinkles and is covered with villi and microvilli, creating an enormous surface area for absorption. As shown in Figure (PageIndex{3}), each villus also has a network of blood capillaries and fine lymphatic vessels called lacteals close to its surface. The thin surface layer of epithelial cells of the villi transports nutrients from the lumen of the small intestine into these capillaries and lacteals. Blood in the capillaries absorbs most of the molecules, including simple sugars, amino acids, glycerol, salts, and water-soluble vitamins (vitamin C and the many B vitamins). Lymph in the lacteals absorbs fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K).

Feature: My Human Body

The process of digestion does not always go as it should. The use of antacids or other medications to relieve symptoms may also be recommended.

Review

  1. Define digestion. Where does it occur?
  2. Identify two organ systems that control the process of digestion by the digestive system.
  3. What is mechanical digestion? Where does it occur?
  4. Describe chemical digestion.
  5. What is the role of enzymes in chemical digestion?
  6. What is absorption? When does it occur?
  7. a. Where does most absorption occur in the digestive system?

    b. Why does most of the absorption occur in this organ and not earlier in the GI tract?

  8. Name two digestive enzymes found in saliva and identify which type of molecule they digest.

  9. a. Where is bile produced?

    b. What are some functions of bile?

  10. True or False. Pepsin digests cellulose.

  11. True or False. Glucose can be absorbed by the body without being further broken down.

  12. The pH of the stomach ___________ .

    A. is neutral B. is alkaline

    C. is acidic D. depends only on what you eat

  13. Lymph absorbs __________ .

    A. fatty acids B. sugars

    C. amino acids D. vitamin C

Explore More

New research shows that babies born through vaginal birth actually have healthier gut flora, learn more here:


3.3: Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates

Sweetness is one of the five basic taste sensations of foods and beverages and is sensed by protein receptors in cells of the taste buds. Fast-releasing carbohydrates stimulate the sweetness taste sensation, which is the most sensitive of all taste sensations. Even extremely low concentrations of sugars in foods will stimulate the sweetness taste sensation. Sweetness varies between the different carbohydrate types&mdashsome are much sweeter than others. Fructose is the top naturally occurring sugar in sweetness value.

Figure (PageIndex<1>): Blueberry pancakes. Whole grains provide satisfaction from the beginning to the end of the digestion process. (CC-SA-BY-2.0 jeffreyw)

See Table 3.3.1 for sweetness comparisons among different naturally-occurring carbohydrates. Sweetness is a pleasurable sensation and some people enjoy the taste more than others. In a colloquial sense, we identify such people as having a &ldquosweet tooth.&rdquo This does not mean that the less-sweet whole grains containing more starches and fiber are less satisfying. Whole grains take longer to chew and get sweeter the more you chew them. Additionally, once in the stomach, whole-grain foods take longer to digest and keep you full longer. Remember too that they contain fiber which makes elimination much smoother. Whole-grain foods satisfy the body the entire way through the digestive tract and provide the nutrients that also better satisfy the body&rsquos functional needs.

Table 3.3.1: Sweetness Comparison of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrate Sweetness (percentage of sucrose)
Sucrose 100
Glucose 74
Galactose 33
Fructose 173
Maltose 33
Lactose 16
Starch 0
Fiber 0

Source: Carter, J. Stein. &ldquoCarbohydrates.&rdquo © 1996 by J. Stein Carter. All rights reserved. www.biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/carbohydrates.htm.


Digestive Glands

  • The digestive glands associated with the alimentary canal include the salivary glands, the liver and the pancreas.
  • Saliva is mainly produced by three pairs of salivary glands, the parotids (cheek), the sub-maxillary/sub-mandibular (lower jaw) and the sub-lingual (below the tongue).
  • These glands situated just outside the buccal cavity secrete salivary juice into the buccal cavity.
  • Liver is the largest gland of the body weighing about 1.2 to 1.5 kg in an adult human.
  • It is situated in the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm and has two lobes.
  • The hepatic lobules are the structural and functional units of liver containing hepatic cells arranged in the form of cords.
  • Each lobule is covered by a thin connective tissue sheath called the Glisson’s capsule.
  • The bile secreted by the hepatic cells passes through the hepatic ducts and is stored and concentrated in a thin muscular sac called the gall bladder.
  • The duct of gall bladder (cystic duct) along with the hepatic duct from the liver forms the common bile duct.
  • The bile duct and the pancreatic duct open together into the duodenum as the common hepato-pancreatic duct which is guarded by a sphincter called the sphincter of Oddi.
  • The pancreas is a compound (both exocrine and endocrine) elongated organ situated between the limbs of the ‘U’ shaped duodenum.
  • The exocrine portion secretes an alkaline pancreatic juice containing enzymes and the endocrine portion secretes hormones, insulin and glucagon.


From the Stomach to the Small Intestine

When food enters the stomach, a highly muscular organ, powerful peristaltic contractions help mash, pulverize, and churn food into chyme. Chyme is a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that also contains gastric juices secreted by cells in the stomach. Cells in the stomach also secrete hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin, that chemically breaks down protein into smaller molecules. A thick mucus coat lines the stomach to protect it from digesting itself. The stomach has three basic tasks:

  1. To store food
  2. To mechanically and chemically break down food
  3. To empty partially broken-down food into the small intestine

The length of time food spends in the stomach varies by the macronutrient composition of the meal. A high-fat or high-protein meal takes longer to break down than one rich in carbohydrates. It usually takes a few hours after a meal to empty the stomach contents completely. The sphincter that allows chyme to pass into the small intestine is known as the pyloric sphincter.

Video 2.3.1: Digestion Video

This video shows the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into chyme.

The small intestine is divided into three structural parts: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Once the chyme enters the duodenum (the first segment of the small intestine), three accessory (or helper) organs: liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are stimulated to release juices that aid in digestion. The pancreas secretes up to 1.5 liters of pancreatic juice through a duct into the duodenum per day. This fluid consists mostly of water, but it also contains bicarbonate ions that neutralize the acidity of the stomach-derived chyme and enzymes that further break down proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. The gallbladder secretes a much smaller amount of bile to help digest fats, also through a duct that leads to the duodenum. Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile&rsquos components act like detergents by surrounding fats similar to the way dish soap removes grease from a frying pan. This allows for the movement of fats in the watery environment of the small intestine. Two different types of muscular contractions, called peristalsis and segmentation, move and mix the food in various stages of digestion through the small intestine. Similar to what occurs in the esophagus and stomach, peristalsis is circular waves of smooth muscle contraction that propel food forward. Segmentation sloshes food back and forth in both directions promoting further mixing of the chyme. Almost all the components of food are completely broken down to their simplest unit within the first 25 centimeters of the small intestine. Instead of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, the chyme now consists of amino acids, monosaccharides, and emulsified fatty acids.

The next step of digestion (nutrient absorption) takes place in the remaining length of the small intestine, or ileum (> 5 meters).

Figure 2.3.3 : The way the small intestine is structured gives it a huge surface area to maximize nutrient absorption. The surface area is increased by folds, villi, and microvilli. Digested nutrients are absorbed into either capillaries or lymphatic vessels contained within each microvilli. © Shutterstock

The small intestine is perfectly structured for maximizing nutrient absorption. Its surface area is greater than 200 square meters, which is about the size of a tennis court. The surface area of the small intestine increases by multiple levels of folding. The internal tissue of the small intestine is covered in villi, which are tiny finger-like projections that are covered with even smaller projections, called microvilli (Figure 2.3.3). The digested nutrients pass through the absorptive cells of the intestine via diffusion or special transport proteins. Amino acids, minerals, alcohol, water soluble vitamins, and monosaccharides (sugars like glucose) are transported from the intestinal cells into capillaries, but the much larger emulsified fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, and other lipids are transported first through lymphatic vessels, which soon meet up with blood vessels.


Welcome to the Living World

Digestion is the conversion of complex insoluble food materials into simple and absorbable form. It includes mechanical processes such as mastication (chewing), deglutition(swallowing) & peristalsis (wave-like movement of food bolus through the gut by muscular contraction).

· Digestion in buccal cavity: Only starch digestion.

Ptyalin converts starch (polysaccharide) into disaccharides. About 30% of starch is digested by ptyalin.

· Digestion in stomach: Stomach stores food for 4-5 hrs.

It is mixed with gastric juice by the churning movements and is converted into acidic pasty form (chyme).

The gastric lipase hydrolyses a small amount of lipids.

· Digestion in small intestine (in Duodenum): Chyme is mixed with succus entericus, pancreatic juice & bile juice.

a) Action of bile: Bile helps in digestion by emulsification(conversion of fatinto micelles or tiny droplets). It provides large surface area for the action of lipase on fat. Bile also activates lipase.

b) Action of pancreatic juice: Amylopsin (Pancreatic amylase)hydrolyses remaining starch into disaccharides.

Enterokinase (Enterokinin) secreted by intestinal mucosa activates trypsinogen to active trypsin. Trypsin activates chymotrypsinogen & procarboxypeptidase.

c) Action of intestinal juice: At duodenum region, the intestinal enzymes act on the products of above reactions.

In large intestine, there is no significant digestive activity. The functions of large intestine are:

a. Absorption of water, minerals and certain drugs.

b. Secretes mucus for adhering waste (undigested) particles together and lubricating it for an easy passage.

Fully digested semi fluid and alkaline food formed in small intestine is called chyle.

ABSORPTION OF DIGESTED PRODUCTS

Absorption is the transfer of end products of digestion through the intestinal mucosa into blood & lymph.

It is 2 types- passive and active.

a) Passive absorption (Passive transport): Absorption of nutrients from higher concentrated region to lower concentrated region without the expenditure of energy.

It includes osmosis (absorption of water) and diffusion (absorption of solute molecules).

i. Simple diffusion: In this, molecules alone can be diffused. E.g. Small amounts of monosaccharides like glucose, amino acids, vitamins, electrolytes like Cl - etc.

ii. Facilitated diffusion: Diffusion with the help of carrier proteins. E.g. glucose, amino acids etc.

b) Active absorption (Active transport): Absorption of nutrients from lower concentrated region to higher concentrated region (i.e. against concentration gradient).

It needs energy. E.g. absorption of amino acids, monosaccharides like glucose, electrolytes like Na + etc.

- Monoglycerides, diglycerides and fatty acids cannot be absorbed directly as they are insoluble in water.

- Bile salts and phospholipidsconvert them into small spherical water-soluble droplets called micelles.

- They are reformed into small protein coated fat globules (chylomicrons).They are transported into lacteals in the villi. From the lymph, the chylomicrons enter the blood.

Absorption in different parts of alimentary canal

· Stomach: Water, simple sugars, some drugs & alcohol.

· Small intestine (mainly Jejunum & Ileum): All nutrients including minerals & vitamins.

It is the chief area of absorption due to the presence of villi, its great length and coiled nature.

· Large intestine: Water, some minerals & drugs.

The absorbed materials are incorporated into tissues for their activities. It is called assimilation.

The undigested substances like plant fibres, dead bacteria etc. form faeces. It enters caecum through the ileo-caecal valve, which prevents back flow of faeces.


Digestion and Absorption Notes, Revision, Summary, Important Formulae

Here are complete Digestion and Absorption important notes and summary. This summarizes most important formulae, concepts, in form of notes of Digestion and Absorption which you can read for NEET preparation.

The important notes of Biology for Digestion and Absorption pdf download are available here for free.

Aspirants of National Eligibility cum Entrance Test should also solve all past year papers of NEET.


Going to the Bloodstream

As stomach contents enter the small intestine, the digestive system sets out to manage a small hurdle, namely, to combine the separated fats with its own watery fluids. The solution to this hurdle is bile. Bile contains bile salts, lecithin, and substances derived from cholesterol so it acts as an emulsifier. It attracts and holds onto fat while it is simultaneously attracted to and held on to by water. Emulsification increases the surface area of lipids over a thousand-fold, making them more accessible to the digestive enzymes.

Once the stomach contents have been emulsified, fat-breaking enzymes work on the triglycerides and diglycerides to sever fatty acids from their glycerol foundations. As pancreatic lipase enters the small intestine, it breaks down the fats into free fatty acids and monoglycerides. Yet again, another hurdle presents itself. How will the fats pass through the watery layer of mucus that coats the absorptive lining of the digestive tract? As before, the answer is bile. Bile salts envelop the fatty acids and monoglycerides to form micelles. Micelles have a fatty acid core with a water-soluble exterior. This allows efficient transportation to the intestinal microvillus. Here, the fat components are released and disseminated into the cells of the digestive tract lining.

Figure 5.11 Micelle Formation

Scheme of a micelle formed by phospholipids in an aqueous solution by Emmanuel Boutet / CC BY-SA 3.0

Figure 5.12 Schematic Diagram Of A Chylomicron

Chylomicrons Contain Triglycerides Cholesterol Molecules and other Lipids by OpenStax College / CC BY 3.0

Just as lipids require special handling in the digestive tract to move within a water-based environment, they require similar handling to travel in the bloodstream. Inside the intestinal cells, the monoglycerides and fatty acids reassemble themselves into triglycerides. Triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids form lipoproteins when joined with a protein carrier. Lipoproteins have an inner core that is primarily made up of triglycerides and cholesterol esters (a cholesterol ester is a cholesterol linked to a fatty acid). The outer envelope is made of phospholipids interspersed with proteins and cholesterol. Together they form a chylomicron, which is a large lipoprotein that now enters the lymphatic system and will soon be released into the bloodstream via the jugular vein in the neck. Chylomicrons transport food fats perfectly through the body&rsquos water-based environment to specific destinations such as the liver and other body tissues.

Cholesterols are poorly absorbed when compared to phospholipids and triglycerides. Cholesterol absorption is aided by an increase in dietary fat components and is hindered by high fiber content. This is the reason that a high intake of fiber is recommended to decrease blood cholesterol. Foods high in fiber such as fresh fruits, vegetables, and oats can bind bile salts and cholesterol, preventing their absorption and carrying them out of the colon.

If fats are not absorbed properly as is seen in some medical conditions, a person&rsquos stool will contain high amounts of fat. If fat malabsorption persists the condition is known as steatorrhea. Steatorrhea can result from diseases that affect absorption, such as Crohn&rsquos disease and cystic fibrosis.

Figure 5.13 Cholesterol and Soluble Fiber


Physiologically Based Modeling of Food Digestion and Intestinal Microbiota: State of the Art and Future Challenges. An INFOGEST Review

This review focuses on modeling methodologies of the gastrointestinal tract during digestion that have adopted a systems-view approach and, more particularly, on physiologically based compartmental models of food digestion and host–diet–microbiota interactions. This type of modeling appears very promising for integrating the complex stream of mechanisms that must be considered and retrieving a full picture of the digestion process from mouth to colon. We may expect these approaches to become more and more accurate in the future and to serve as a useful means of understanding the physicochemical processes occurring in the gastrointestinaltract, interpreting postprandial in vivo data, making relevant predictions, and designing healthier foods. This review intends to provide a scientific and historical background of this field of research, before discussing the future challenges and potential benefits of the establishment of such a model to study and predict food digestion and absorption in humans.


Parts of the Alimentary Canal [back to top]

1. Mouth (Buccal cavity) [back to top]

The teeth and tongue physically break up the food into small pieces with a larger surface area, and form it into a ball or bolus. The salivary glands secrete saliva, which contains water to dissolve soluble substances, mucus for lubrication, lysozymes to kill bacteria and amylase to digest starch. The food bolus is swallowed by an involuntary reflex action through the pharynx (the back of the mouth). During swallowing the trachea is blocked off by the epiglottis to stop food entering the lungs.

2. Oesophagus (gullet) [back to top]

This is a simple tube through the thorax, which connects the mouth to the rest of the gut. No digestion takes place. There is a thin epithelium, no villi, a few glands secreting mucus, and a thick muscle layer, which propels the food by peristalsis. This is a wave of circular muscle contraction, which passes down the oesophagus and is completely involuntary. The oesophagus is a soft tube that can be closed, unlike the trachea, which is a hard tube, held open by rings of cartilage.

3. Stomach [back to top]

This is an expandable bag where the food is stored for up to a few hours. There are three layers of muscle to churn the food into a liquid called chyme. This is gradually released in to the small intestine by a sphincter, a region of thick circular muscle that acts as a valve. The mucosa of the stomach wall has no villi, but numerous gastric pits (10 4 cm 𔂬 ) leading to gastric glands in the mucosa layer. These secrete gastric juice, which contains: hydrochloric acid (pH 1) to kill bacteria (the acid does not help digestion, in fact it hinders it by denaturing most enzymes) mucus to lubricate the food and to line the epithelium to protect it from the acid and the enzymes pepsin and rennin to digest proteins.

4. Small Intestine [back to top]

This is about 6.5 m long, and can be divided into three sections:

(a) The duodenum (30 cm long). Although this is short, almost all the digestion takes place here, due to two secretions: Pancreatic juice, secreted by the pancreas through the pancreatic duct. This contains numerous carbohydrase, protease and lipase enzymes. Bile, secreted by the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and released through the bile duct into the duodenum. Bile contains bile salts to aid lipid digestion, and the alkali sodium hydrogen carbonate to neutralise the stomach acid. Without this, the pancreatic enzymes would not work. The bile duct and the pancreatic duct join just before they enter the duodenum. The mucosa of the duodenum has few villi, since there is no absorption, but the submucosa contains glands secreting mucus and sodium hydrogen carbonate.

(c) The ileum (4 m long). These two are similar in humans, and are the site of final digestion and all absorption. There are numerous glands in the mucosa and submucosa secreting enzymes, mucus and sodium hydrogen carbonate.

The internal surface area is increased enormously by three levels of folding: large folds of the mucosa, villi, and microvilli. Don't confuse these: villi are large structures composed of many cells that can clearly be seen with a light microscope, while microvilli are small sub-cellular structures formed by the folding of the plasma membrane of individual cells. Microvilli can only be seen clearly with an electron microscope, and appear as a fuzzy brush border under the light microscope.

Circular and longitudinal muscles propel the liquid food by peristalsis, and mix the contents by pendular movements - bi-directional peristalsis. This also improves absorption.

5. Large Intestine [back to top]

This comprises the caecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and rectum. Food can spend 36 hours in the large intestine, while water is absorbed to form semi-solid faeces. The mucosa contains villi but no microvilli, and there are numerous glands secreting mucus. Faeces is made up of plant fibre (cellulose mainly), cholesterol, bile, mucus, mucosa cells (250g of cells are lost each day), bacteria and water, and is released by the anal sphincter. This is a rare example of an involuntary muscle that we can learn to control (during potty training).


BIO 140 - Human Biology I - Textbook

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Chapter 20

Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look

  • Identify the locations and primary secretions involved in the chemical digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
  • Compare and contrast absorption of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic nutrients

As you have learned, the process of mechanical digestion is relatively simple. It involves the physical breakdown of food but does not alter its chemical makeup. Chemical digestion, on the other hand, is a complex process that reduces food into its chemical building blocks, which are then absorbed to nourish the cells of the body (Figure 1). In this section, you will look more closely at the processes of chemical digestion and absorption.

Figure 1: Digestion begins in the mouth and continues as food travels through the small intestine. Most absorption occurs in the small intestine.

Chemical Digestion

Large food molecules (for example, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and starches) must be broken down into subunits that are small enough to be absorbed by the lining of the alimentary canal. This is accomplished by enzymes through hydrolysis. The many enzymes involved in chemical digestion are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1: The Digestive Enzymes

  • Aminopeptidase: amino acids at the amino end of peptides
  • Dipeptidase: dipeptides
  • Aminopeptidase: amino acids and peptides
  • Dipeptidase: amino acids
  • Ribonuclease: ribonucleic acids
  • Deoxyribonuclease: deoxyribonucleic acids
Carbohydrate Digestion

The average American diet is about 50 percent carbohydrates, which may be classified according to the number of monomers they contain of simple sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) and/or complex sugars (polysaccharides). Glucose, galactose, and fructose are the three monosaccharides that are commonly consumed and are readily absorbed. Your digestive system is also able to break down the disaccharide sucrose (regular table sugar: glucose + fructose), lactose (milk sugar: glucose + galactose), and maltose (grain sugar: glucose + glucose), and the polysaccharides glycogen and starch (chains of monosaccharides). Your bodies do not produce enzymes that can break down most fibrous polysaccharides, such as cellulose. While indigestible polysaccharides do not provide any nutritional value, they do provide dietary fiber, which helps propel food through the alimentary canal.

The chemical digestion of starches begins in the mouth and has been reviewed above.

In the small intestine, pancreatic amylase does the &lsquoheavy lifting&rsquo for starch and carbohydrate digestion (Figure 2). After amylases break down starch into smaller fragments, the brush border enzyme &alpha-dextrinase starts working on &alpha-dextrin , breaking off one glucose unit at a time. Three brush border enzymes hydrolyze sucrose, lactose, and maltose into monosaccharides. Sucrase splits sucrose into one molecule of fructose and one molecule of glucose maltase breaks down maltose and maltotriose into two and three glucose molecules, respectively and lactase breaks down lactose into one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose. Insufficient lactase can lead to lactose intolerance.

Figure 2: Carbohydrates are broken down into their monomers in a series of steps.

Protein Digestion

Proteins are polymers composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds to form long chains. Digestion reduces them to their constituent amino acids. You usually consume about 15 to 20 percent of your total calorie intake as protein.

The digestion of protein starts in the stomach, where HCl and pepsin break proteins into smaller polypeptides, which then travel to the small intestine (Figure 3). Chemical digestion in the small intestine is continued by pancreatic enzymes, including chymotrypsin and trypsin, each of which act on specific bonds in amino acid sequences. At the same time, the cells of the brush border secrete enzymes such as aminopeptidase and dipeptidase , which further break down peptide chains. This results in molecules small enough to enter the bloodstream (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Proteins are successively broken down into their amino acid components.

Lipid Digestion

A healthy diet limits lipid intake to 35 percent of total calorie intake. The most common dietary lipids are triglycerides, which are made up of a glycerol molecule bound to three fatty acid chains. Small amounts of dietary cholesterol and phospholipids are also consumed.

The three lipases responsible for lipid digestion are lingual lipase, gastric lipase, and pancreatic lipase . However, because the pancreas is the only consequential source of lipase, virtually all lipid digestion occurs in the small intestine. Pancreatic lipase breaks down each triglyceride into two free fatty acids and a monoglyceride. The fatty acids include both short-chain (less than 10 to 12 carbons) and long-chain fatty acids.

Nucleic Acid Digestion

The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are found in most of the foods you eat. Two types of pancreatic nuclease are responsible for their digestion: deoxyribonuclease , which digests DNA, and ribonuclease , which digests RNA. The nucleotides produced by this digestion are further broken down by two intestinal brush border enzymes ( nucleosidase and phosphatase ) into pentoses, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases, which can be absorbed through the alimentary canal wall. The large food molecules that must be broken down into subunits are summarized Table 2.

Table 2: Absorbable Food Substances

Source Substance
Carbohydrates Monosaccharides: glucose, galactose, and fructose
Proteins Single amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides
Triglycerides Monoacylglycerides, glycerol, and free fatty acids
Nucleic acids Pentose sugars, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases

Absorption

The mechanical and digestive processes have one goal: to convert food into molecules small enough to be absorbed by the epithelial cells of the intestinal villi. The absorptive capacity of the alimentary canal is almost endless. Each day, the alimentary canal processes up to 10 liters of food, liquids, and GI secretions, yet less than one liter enters the large intestine. Almost all ingested food, 80 percent of electrolytes, and 90 percent of water are absorbed in the small intestine. Although the entire small intestine is involved in the absorption of water and lipids, most absorption of carbohydrates and proteins occurs in the jejunum. Notably, bile salts and vitamin B12 are absorbed in the terminal ileum. By the time chyme passes from the ileum into the large intestine, it is essentially indigestible food residue (mainly plant fibers like cellulose), some water, and millions of bacteria (Figure 5).

Figure 5: Absorption is a complex process, in which nutrients from digested food are harvested.

Absorption can occur through five mechanisms: (1) active transport, (2) passive diffusion, (3) facilitated diffusion, (4) co-transport (or secondary active transport), and (5) endocytosis. As you will recall from Chapter 3, active transport refers to the movement of a substance across a cell membrane going from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration (up the concentration gradient). In this type of transport, proteins within the cell membrane act as &ldquopumps,&rdquo using cellular energy (ATP) to move the substance. Passive diffusion refers to the movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, while facilitated diffusion refers to the movement of substances from an area of higher to an area of lower concentration using a carrier protein in the cell membrane. Co-transport uses the movement of one molecule through the membrane from higher to lower concentration to power the movement of another from lower to higher. Finally, endocytosis is a transportation process in which the cell membrane engulfs material. It requires energy, generally in the form of ATP.

Because the cell&rsquos plasma membrane is made up of hydrophobic phospholipids, water-soluble nutrients must use transport molecules embedded in the membrane to enter cells. Moreover, substances cannot pass between the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa because these cells are bound together by tight junctions. Thus, substances can only enter blood capillaries by passing through the apical surfaces of epithelial cells and into the interstitial fluid. Water-soluble nutrients enter the capillary blood in the villi and travel to the liver via the hepatic portal vein.

In contrast to the water-soluble nutrients, lipid-soluble nutrients can diffuse through the plasma membrane. Once inside the cell, they are packaged for transport via the base of the cell and then enter the lacteals of the villi to be transported by lymphatic vessels to the systemic circulation via the thoracic duct. The absorption of most nutrients through the mucosa of the intestinal villi requires active transport fueled by ATP. The routes of absorption for each food category are summarized in Table 3.

Table 3: Absorption in the Alimentary Canal

Food Breakdown products Absorption mechanism Entry to bloodstream Destination
Carbohydrates Glucose Co-transport with sodium ions Capillary blood in villi Liver via hepatic portal vein
Carbohydrates Galactose Co-transport with sodium ions Capillary blood in villi Liver via hepatic portal vein
Carbohydrates Fructose Facilitated diffusion Capillary blood in villi Liver via hepatic portal vein
Protein Amino acids Co-transport with sodium ions Capillary blood in villi Liver via hepatic portal vein
Lipids Long-chain fatty acids Diffusion into intestinal cells, where they are combined with proteins to create chylomicrons Lacteals of villi Systemic circulation via lymph entering thoracic duct
Lipids Monoacylglycerides Diffusion into intestinal cells, where they are combined with proteins to create chylomicrons Lacteals of villi Systemic circulation via lymph entering thoracic duct
Lipids Short-chain fatty acids Simple diffusion Capillary blood in villi Liver via hepatic portal vein
Lipids Glycerol Simple diffusion Capillary blood in villi Liver via hepatic portal vein
Nucleic Acids Nucleic acid digestion products Active transport via membrane carriers Capillary blood in villi Liver via hepatic portal vein

Carbohydrate Absorption

All carbohydrates are absorbed in the form of monosaccharides. The small intestine is highly efficient at this, absorbing monosaccharides at an estimated rate of 120 grams per hour. All normally digested dietary carbohydrates are absorbed indigestible fibers are eliminated in the feces. The monosaccharides glucose and galactose are transported into the epithelial cells by common protein carriers via secondary active transport (that is, co-transport with sodium ions). The monosaccharides leave these cells via facilitated diffusion and enter the capillaries through intercellular clefts. The monosaccharide fructose (which is in fruit) is absorbed and transported by facilitated diffusion alone. The monosaccharides combine with the transport proteins immediately after the disaccharides are broken down.

Protein Absorption

Active transport mechanisms, primarily in the duodenum and jejunum, absorb most proteins as their breakdown products, amino acids. Almost all (95 to 98 percent) protein is digested and absorbed in the small intestine. The type of carrier that transports an amino acid varies. Most carriers are linked to the active transport of sodium. Short chains of two amino acids (dipeptides) or three amino acids (tripeptides) are also transported actively. However, after they enter the absorptive epithelial cells, they are broken down into their amino acids before leaving the cell and entering the capillary blood via diffusion.

Lipid Absorption

About 95 percent of lipids are absorbed in the small intestine. Bile salts not only speed up lipid digestion, they are also essential to the absorption of the end products of lipid digestion. Short-chain fatty acids are relatively water soluble and can enter the absorptive cells (enterocytes) directly. The small size of short-chain fatty acids enables them to be absorbed by enterocytes via simple diffusion, and then take the same path as monosaccharides and amino acids into the blood capillary of a villus.

The large and hydrophobic long-chain fatty acids and monoacylglycerides are not so easily suspended in the watery intestinal chyme. However, bile salts and lecithin resolve this issue by enclosing them in a micelle , which is a tiny sphere with polar (hydrophilic) ends facing the watery environment and hydrophobic tails turned to the interior, creating a receptive environment for the long-chain fatty acids. The core also includes cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins. Without micelles, lipids would sit on the surface of chyme and never come in contact with the absorptive surfaces of the epithelial cells. Micelles can easily squeeze between microvilli and get very near the luminal cell surface. At this point, lipid substances exit the micelle and are absorbed via simple diffusion.

The free fatty acids and monoacylglycerides that enter the epithelial cells are reincorporated into triglycerides. The triglycerides are mixed with phospholipids and cholesterol, and surrounded with a protein coat. This new complex, called a chylomicron , is a water-soluble lipoprotein. After being processed by the Golgi apparatus, chylomicrons are released from the cell (Figure 6). Too big to pass through the basement membranes of blood capillaries, chylomicrons instead enter the large pores of lacteals. The lacteals come together to form the lymphatic vessels. The chylomicrons are transported in the lymphatic vessels and empty through the thoracic duct into the subclavian vein of the circulatory system. Once in the bloodstream, the enzyme lipoprotein lipase breaks down the triglycerides of the chylomicrons into free fatty acids and glycerol. These breakdown products then pass through capillary walls to be used for energy by cells or stored in adipose tissue as fat. Liver cells combine the remaining chylomicron remnants with proteins, forming lipoproteins that transport cholesterol in the blood.

Figure 6: Unlike amino acids and simple sugars, lipids are transformed as they are absorbed through epithelial cells.

Nucleic Acid Absorption

The products of nucleic acid digestion&mdashpentose sugars, nitrogenous bases, and phosphate ions&mdashare transported by carriers across the villus epithelium via active transport. These products then enter the bloodstream.

Mineral Absorption

The electrolytes absorbed by the small intestine are from both GI secretions and ingested foods. Since electrolytes dissociate into ions in water, most are absorbed via active transport throughout the entire small intestine. During absorption, co-transport mechanisms result in the accumulation of sodium ions inside the cells, whereas anti-port mechanisms reduce the potassium ion concentration inside the cells. To restore the sodium-potassium gradient across the cell membrane, a sodium-potassium pump requiring ATP pumps sodium out and potassium in.

In general, all minerals that enter the intestine are absorbed, whether you need them or not. Iron and calcium are exceptions they are absorbed in the duodenum in amounts that meet the body&rsquos current requirements, as follows:

Iron&mdashThe ionic iron needed for the production of hemoglobin is absorbed into mucosal cells via active transport. Once inside mucosal cells, ionic iron binds to the protein ferritin, creating iron-ferritin complexes that store iron until needed. When the body has enough iron, most of the stored iron is lost when worn-out epithelial cells slough off. When the body needs iron because, for example, it is lost during acute or chronic bleeding, there is increased uptake of iron from the intestine and accelerated release of iron into the bloodstream. Since women experience significant iron loss during menstruation, they have around four times as many iron transport proteins in their intestinal epithelial cells as do men.

Calcium&mdashBlood levels of ionic calcium determine the absorption of dietary calcium. When blood levels of ionic calcium drop, parathyroid hormone (PTH) secreted by the parathyroid glands stimulates the release of calcium ions from bone matrices and increases the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys. PTH also upregulates the activation of vitamin D in the kidney, which then facilitates intestinal calcium ion absorption.

Vitamin Absorption

The small intestine absorbs the vitamins that occur naturally in food and supplements. Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are absorbed along with dietary lipids in micelles via simple diffusion. This is why you are advised to eat some fatty foods when you take fat-soluble vitamin supplements. Most water-soluble vitamins (including most B vitamins and vitamin C) also are absorbed by simple diffusion. An exception is vitamin B12, which is a very large molecule. Intrinsic factor secreted in the stomach binds to vitamin B12, preventing its digestion and creating a complex that binds to mucosal receptors in the terminal ileum, where it is taken up by endocytosis.

Water Absorption

Each day, about nine liters of fluid enter the small intestine. About 2.3 liters are ingested in foods and beverages, and the rest is from GI secretions. About 90 percent of this water is absorbed in the small intestine. Water absorption is driven by the concentration gradient of the water: The concentration of water is higher in chyme than it is in epithelial cells. Thus, water moves down its concentration gradient from the chyme into cells. As noted earlier, much of the remaining water is then absorbed in the colon.

Chapter Review

The small intestine is the site of most chemical digestion and almost all absorption. Chemical digestion breaks large food molecules down into their chemical building blocks, which can then be absorbed through the intestinal wall and into the general circulation. Intestinal brush border enzymes and pancreatic enzymes are responsible for the majority of chemical digestion. The breakdown of fat also requires bile.

Most nutrients are absorbed by transport mechanisms at the apical surface of enterocytes. Exceptions include lipids, fat-soluble vitamins, and most water-soluble vitamins. With the help of bile salts and lecithin, the dietary fats are emulsified to form micelles, which can carry the fat particles to the surface of the enterocytes. There, the micelles release their fats to diffuse across the cell membrane. The fats are then reassembled into triglycerides and mixed with other lipids and proteins into chylomicrons that can pass into lacteals. Other absorbed monomers travel from blood capillaries in the villus to the hepatic portal vein and then to the liver.


Watch the video: Bio 1 chapter digestive system (January 2022).