I found this image on the Internet, which features an African youngster holding up an animal for sale to a potential customer sitting inside a car. It appears to be some sort of dried and disemboweled animal.
What is the identity of the animal?
The boy is holding a couple of smoked/barbecued cane rats, also known as "grasscutters". These are commonly hunted as bushmeat in West and Central Africa and have recently been farmed as well.
You can see some similar photos here:
Inside the Black Market Hummingbird Love Charm Trade
There’s a witch in San Diego who casts spells to “trap a man” and “dominate him” so “he’ll always come back.” She has a shop on San Ysidro Boulevard, one mile from the busiest Mexico border crossing in the United States, near a pawnshop, a liquor store, a furniture market, and the Smokenjoy Hookah Lounge, where DJ music thumps on Friday nights.
But you don’t need to go to her shop for magic—you can join the tens of thousands watching her on YouTube. Like a wicked Martha Stewart creating potions instead of potpourri, she provides step-by-step instructions for her spells.
“This is the honey jar,” she tells viewers while introducing the ingredients on her workbench: photographs of two would-be lovers, a piece of paper with their names written on it three times, a small glass jar—and a dead hummingbird. She rolls the tiny animal inside the photographs and wraps the cigar-shaped bundle with hot-pink yarn nearly the same shade as her long, fake fingernails.
Showing only her arms and lower body on camera, she shields her identity as she swaddles the package in a sarcophagus of tacky flypaper, dips it in cinnamon spice, squeezes it into the jar, and spritzes it with perfumes and oils—pheromones—“so he’ll stay sexually attracted.” Restless balm “so he’ll be like, ‘Oh my God, I need to call her.’” Sleep oil “so he’ll be like a zombie.” Attraction oil “so he’ll be like, ‘Goddamn, you so beautiful, you so fine.’” Dominating oil “so you dominate his thoughts.”
Finally she fills the jar with a thick pour of golden honey and tops it with a sprinkle of rose petals. “I love this,” she says. “I’m already getting a really good vibe.”
As an entrepreneurial saleswoman, she tells viewers that any hard-to-find ingredients used in her creations are available for customers. For example, on her website a dead hummingbird—in life a feisty little iridescent green creature with rust-colored tail feathers—is $50. Buying a ready-made honey jar is another option. In an email she quoted me $500.
Had I typed in my credit card number, I’d have been committing a felony. Multiple federal and international wildlife laws protect hummingbirds and most other feathered animals from being bought and sold. Even possessing undocumented birds is a serious crime. Last May a California man on a flight from Vietnam got caught at Los Angeles International Airport with nearly a hundred “good luck” songbirds in his suitcase. He was sentenced to six months' home detention followed by a year in prison.
YouTube voodoo starring dead hummingbirds isn’t just some weird internet thing—it’s a peek inside the dark world of a mysterious international trade that may pose a serious threat to a group of animals already facing declines from habitat loss and climate change.
Some Mexicans believe hummingbirds have supernatural powers. Beyond the internet, merchants sell them from behind counters at spiritual shops called botanicas, filled with herbs, incense, candles, oils, and scythe-wielding statues of Santa Muerte, the goddess of death. Mystics call the hummingbird la chuparosa, a token akin to a lucky rabbit’s foot for good fortune in love. Chuparosas are often sold wrapped in red paper and satin tassels with an accompanying love prayer: “Divine hummingbird . with your holy power I ask that you enrich my life and love so that my lover will want only me.”
Animal Skulls for Sale
Explore our hand-selected collection of authentic animal skulls for sale. All of our skulls come from real animals and are not replicas or reproductions. They have each been carefully cleaned in the United States, Africa or India with all the required licenses. You can purchase animal skulls wholesale to receive unique bones in bulk chosen by Atlantic Coral Enterprise, or if you would like to view photos to know all the ins and outs of what makes the exact skull you are purchasing different, check out our animal skulls for hand-picked pricing. We also have discount animal skulls for sale with slight imperfections that come from the animal living in the wild. Because these skulls come from real life animals with their own individual variations, no two of our animal skulls are the same.
Animal skulls have long been a coveted item for collectors and wild game enthusiasts, and lately they are one of the most popular pieces of interior design. We have buffalo skulls for sale which have become a staple in bohemian and southwest décor, as well as other horned skulls that make for great statement pieces in many settings from an ultra-modern living space to a rustic hunting lodge, such as impala skulls, wildebeest skulls, and springbok skulls. Alligator skulls give a unique Florida vibe. You can browse décor inspiration photos on Houzz that have used animal skulls in a variety of different styles.
Smaller North American animal skulls such as beaver skulls, raccoon skulls, and bobcat skulls are often used by teachers and educators in the classroom to help students better understand these animals and their unique features. Artists will frequently use small skulls such as bat skulls in jewelry or deer skulls and coyote skulls for painting or carving. In fact, there are many crafty things to do with animal skulls – it’s all up to your creativity!
Our wide assortment of skulls is made up of both domestic and international animals, large and small. Our inventory includes real animal skulls from the following animals and more:
Whether you are looking for a tiny pheasant skull or a large giraffe skull, our collection has the perfect animal skull for your needs. You may even discover an animal skull you didn’t realize you needed in your collection! Once it is yours, you can paint it, carve it, mount it or display it on a shelf. The possibilities are endless, and they’re always surefire conversation pieces for guests who spot these one-of-a-kind skulls. Please note that these authentic animal skulls cannot be exported, so international shipping is not provided. Additionally, bobcat, lynx and fox skulls cannot be shipped to California.
Dried seahorses for sale in Chinatown. Image credit: Sharat Ganapati/Flickr.com
The use of sea horses in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) preceded several centuries. In the modern world, over 90 medicinal products are sold in China and beyond that contain seahorse parts. They are used to treat circulatory problems, kidney failure, and impotency. Approximately 150,000,000 sea horses are harvested annually by over 30 countries to meet the ever-growing demand for sea horse infused medicinal products. China alone has a domestic demand of 250 tons of sea horse medicine, and this has negatively impacted sea horse populations in the wild. Currently, more than half of the species hover close to being declared endangered species.
Your Complete High School Level Biology Course?
It depends—homeschooling families’ approaches to teaching and learning are far from cookie-cutter in design. For some families, this set of DVDs— which are very comprehensive in scope—will be enough to provide a thorough grounding in biology.
Other families may prefer to use these DVDs as a starting point, one that provides their student with the correct foundation an eye and mind-opening overview of biology, before beginning textbook study. A 12-page Course Accreditation Program booklet is included in (digital PDF) format, for those who want the DVDs to form the foundation of a full school year's Biology course. In either case, students will find the series captivating and informative. In fact, the entire family might enjoy watching each segment together and engaging in lively discussions about the material.
What Does Biology 101 Contain?
The 4 DVD set contains a coherent, easy to understand and faith-based comprehension of the world around us. Many modern biologists ignore God's revelation of His creation. Biology 101 presents the study of biology following the actual creation days revealed in the book of Genesis. The 9 individual segments provide a thoroughly Biblical framework and most of them run from 30-45 minutes each. An interesting and fact-filled 114-page Guidebook with quizzes covering each segment is included as a printable (digital PDF) on disc D.
Benefits of Bulk Liquid Molasses Feed for Cattle and Livestock
For over 80 years, we have crafted and sold molasses for cattle and other livestock that makes a real difference on farms across the country. Adding molasses to dry feed provides a wide range of health benefits for your animals, essentially increasing the quality of the feed you’re using. At Zook Molasses, our bulk liquid molasses is primarily used for cows, including beef cattle, lactating dairy cows, and dry dairy cows. Adding high-quality molasses for cows into the forage has been demonstrated to add key nutrients and make the fiber in your standard feed more digestible. In addition, the taste of feed molasses improves appetite, even during stressful periods, ensuring a stabilized feed intake for your herd. On a microbial level, these supplements increase the efficiency of the cow’s rumen, allowing them to further breakdown and get more nutrients out of your standard feed. While cattle are a primary focus of ours, we also make bulk liquid molasses animal feed specifically formulated for other animals, including horses and sheep.
Liquid Molasses Animal Feed: Quality, Convenient, & Affordable
A quality food source is the key to a happy and healthy herd. Get the most out of your livestock by introducing liquid molasses feed into your animal’s daily diets. When looking for a convenient and affordable to solution to a costly expense such as animal feed, bulk molasses for cattle and other livestock is a great place to start. With the well-known nutritional value of molasses for animal gut health, a choice based on quality is easy.
Contact us today to learn more about the convenience of bulk molasses animal feed and get pricing!
Get Pricing on Our Feed Grade Molasses for Sale
Not only do our liquid animal feeds make your life easier, but buying from us is easy and convenient, too. When you order our feed grade molasses for cows or other animals from Zook Molasses, we give you multiple ways to purchase the product you want. We offer liquid animal feed in 5-gallon buckets, 55-gallon drums, 275-gallon totes – or even bulk metered orders where you pay by the gallon!
Simply put: our mission is to make your herd healthier, to save you money on feed, and to make your job just a little easier. We’re here to provide solutions for your herd, and to do that, we’re glad to work with you or talk directly to your trusted animal feed nutritionist. When you call Zook Molasses, you’ll speak to an expert who understands farming and the role of animal feed molasses – reach out when you’re ready to place an order, or to ask us questions about our feed grade molasses for sale!
How to Find Terrestrial Tardigrades
- Collect a clump of moss or lichen (dry or wet) and place in a shallow dish, such as a Petri dish.
- Soak in water (preferably rainwater or distilled water) for 3-24 hours.
- Remove and discard excess water from the dish.
- Shake or squeeze the moss/lichen clumps over another transparent dish to collect trapped water.
- Starting on a low obejctive lens, examine the water using a stereo microscope.
- Use a micropipette to transfer tardigrades to a slide, which can be observed with a higher power under a compound microscope.
How to Prepare an Animal Skeleton for Display
Forensic scientists, crime scene investigators (CSIs), pathologists, archaeologists, paleontologists, biology students, medical students, science teachers, as well as bone and skull-collectors all require skills in working with and in preparing animal or human bones and skeletal remains. Here you will learn to prepare a medium-sized animal skeleton for display. The process you will employ can be used to prepare animal skeletons of all varieties and sizes. Once you have prepared several skeletons, you can compare anatomical structures between different individuals within a species as well as the differences between skeletons of entirely different animal species. You will use these introductory skills in future skeletal preparations of other animal species such as fish, birds, and reptiles. Many of these techniques are used in preparing dinosaur skeletons and other fossils.
A dead animal (road kill, ex-pet, hunting quarry)
Skeleton Preparator’s Standard Toolkit as follows:
Disposable surgical masks
Bricks and boards (scrap lumber)
Old nylon stockings or pantyhose
Anatomical skeletal diagram
Step 1: Obtain Carcass. Select and obtain a suitable medium-sized dead but not mangled animal carcass. Non mammals, very large, and very small animals are not suitable for a first-time preparation. Select a medium sized dead animal carcass such as raccoon, opossum, woodchuck, marmot, house cat, or rabbit. Fresh killed and minimally damaged road kill animals are readily available in most areas. Hunting quarry or dead house pets are other possibilities.
Step 2: Prepare Carcass. Prepare your dead animal carcass for a special decomposition burial process by placing it inside of an old nylon stocking or pantyhose to prevent loss of small bones and teeth. Wrap the bundle loosely in a thin old cotton rag with a few holes in it. This preparation wrap will allow decomposition organisms (bugs, worms, bacteria, etc.) access but will prevent loss of any of the small bones or teeth that are loosened during decomposition. Set the prepared carcass bundle aside while you prepare the burial chamber where decomposition will take place.
Step 3: Prepare Burial Chamber. Prepare a special burial chamber to receive the prepared carcass. Locate the burial chamber away from and down wind of dwellings. Dig a hole in the ground that is large enough to accommodate the carcass bundle. A cubic hole with dimensions of roughly two feet by two feet by two feet will be perfect for most medium sized animals. Line this chamber loosely with scrap lumber and bricks arranged so that you can place a wooden cover over the burial chamber. Alternate above-ground burial methods include a big wooden box or heavy cardboard box full of sand or successive bins full of blow-fly maggots and others in a series of decomposition larvae. Frequent watering of the burial chamber, especially in very dry environments, will accelerate soft tissue decomposition and prevent mummification of the remains.
Step 4: Bury Carcass. Place the wrapped carcass bundle inside the completed burial chamber. Add a few spades full of activated compost, sand, or garden soil to cover the carcass but not enough to fill the chamber. The addition of urine, manure, and sour dairy products to the soil will help induce bacterial decomposition. Nature will take care of the rest. Place the wooden cover (lumber scraps) over the chamber and cover with remaining soil. Place a large rock on top to both mark the location and to prevent scavengers from entering.
Step 5: Await Decomposition. Wait for full soft tissue decomposition to take place. Timing will depend upon the size of the animal, your climate conditions (heat, moisture, time of year), and the amount of fat the animal had. Fat tends to impede the process of decomposition. Wait about 60 days in the northern temperate summer or during southern winter months. Wait about 30 days in southern sub-tropical summer. For reference purposes, it takes less than two weeks for a raccoon to decompose to little more than bones on the ground surface during the hot humid Florida summer.
Step 6: Exhume Remains. After the elapsed time, carefully exhume the skeletal remains from burial chamber. If you smell putrification (rotting meat), stop and reseal the burial chamber for a few more weeks. You should smell soil and moldy decay but not putrification when decomposition is sufficiently advanced. Wear disposable rubber gloves. Place the carcass bundle with its contained remains on a work surface and open carefully. You should see bones and some remaining shreds of hair and soft tissue.
Step 7: Gather & Clean Bones. Use tweezers and tongs to remove bones one by one to a bucket containing a gallon of water and two cups of chlorine bleach. Have an anatomical diagram of your skeleton’s species on hand to help you identify and locate the bones as you disarticulate the skeleton. Take notes and sketch diagrams as you continue collecting bones from the animal remains to help you remember how to reassemble the skeleton later.
Step 8: Collect Teeth & Small Bones. Be very careful to gather any teeth which may come loose from the skull and jawbones. Place teeth and very small bones recovered in separate containers of bleach and water to aid in finding them later. Keep the tiny bones from each of the four feet in four separate containers to avoid mixing them up and to ease reassembly later. Leave all bones in their bleach solutions for at least 48 hours.
Step 9: Rinse & Dry Bones. Rinse bones through a sieve or old window screen with much clear water while being very careful not to lose any bones or teeth. Manually remove any shreds of remaining soft tissue using tweezers and tongs. Soak rinsed bones in a bucket of clear water and 2 ounces of hydrogen peroxide for 24 hours to whiten further and to stop bleach reaction. When all bones are recovered and thoroughly rinsed, lay them out on a board or cardboard work surface to dry in the sun. Begin organizing the skeleton as you lay out the bones to dry. Keep the four sets of tiny foot bones separate. Allow bones to dry for two days in the sun. Bleached bones will continue to whiten as they dry. They will have the distinct odor of bleached dried bones, which is the same for all mammals. The odor will dissipate in a few weeks.
Step 10: Assemble Skull. When bones are completely clean and dry, reassemble the skull using white craft glue to re-insert teeth into their sockets. Use glue to assemble both halves of the lower jaw and to attach jaw to skull. Use toothpicks or matchsticks to prop the jaws open to about 45 degrees and use rubber bands to clamp the bones into position while the glue dries.
Step 11: Assemble Backbone & Tail. Reassemble the spinal column by following your notes and anatomical diagrams and inserting each vertebra onto a wire cut from a metal coat hanger or some other stiff but bendable wire. Install the vertebrae in their proper order. When complete the wire will run through the spinal canal. Use a hot glue gun to inject a spinal “disc” between each vertebra and the next. Use craft glue between contact points along the entire spinal column (and tail). Bend the ends of the wire to hold the vertebrae (and sacroiliac portion of the pelvis) tightly in place while the glue dries and ever after. Assemble tailbones separately and attach those too small to fit on the “spinal wire” later.
Step 12: Assemble the Legs. Use hot glue and craft glue as needed to hold these bones together. Attach the ribs to the proper vertebrae and to the sternum as necessary. Use your hot glue gun to assemble the several sternum bones. Clothes pins serve as excellent clamps to hold bones in place as glue dries. Use a mixture of Plaster of Paris and white craft glue to fill in any broken or damaged portions of bones. Cotton swabs make perfect disposable glue brushes. Use the glue-plaster mixture to add structural connectedness and extra support where ligaments used to be.
Step 13: Mount & Seal the Skeleton. Mount the final assembly of the prepared skeleton on a wooden base. Drill ¼-inch holes near each leg position and install 1/4-inch wooden dowels in each hole. Use these posts and glue with temporary rubber bands to support the skeleton&rsquos legs in a normal stance. Use your hot glue gun to attach the two shoulder blades to the outer surfaces of the ribs. Leave the dowels in place even after the glue has dried to add support to your completed skeleton. With practice and experience, you will be able to assemble an animal skeleton that is completely freestanding. Clear coat the entire skeleton with spray polyurethane to seal and restore luster to the bleached and dried out bones.
Use your artistic creativity to solve problems of bone preparation and assembly. Use toothpicks, match sticks, cotton swabs, rubber bands, and clothes pins as temporary devices to prop and clamp bones in place until glue dries. Use a mixture of glue and plaster to repair damaged bones and to fill gaps as needed. White craft glue diluted with water and applied with cotton swabs is a great primer for bone surfaces. The combination of glue-bone-plaster is sandable. Some joints are hard to glue together because cartilage is missing from their surfaces. Use your hot glue gun and layers of white craft glue to rebuild missing cartilage and ligaments. Disposable surgical masks with a dab of cologne will help to get you past obnoxious odors in this project and in this line of work.
· Wear rubber gloves when handling dead animals and decomposing remains.
· Be extra careful when using strong chlorine bleach solutions. Bleach and bleach fumes are dangerous. NEVER Mix Ammonia and Bleach!
· Hot glue guns are hot! Danger of burns. Adult supervision is strongly advised.
· Boiling of bones takes place only for human remains when facial reconstruction is required immediately for body identification and other CSI Forensics purposes. In general, boiling distorts and damages most bones and is a poor but fast alternate option to enhanced natural decomposition methods.
· Some people have difficulty dealing with such topics as death, decomposition, burying and digging up dead animals, putrification, and decay. If you intend to become a skeleton preparitor, a CSI, or even to complete this project…You will need to get over it. Dig?
· Whether you are religious or spiritual or not, Death, Decay, Decomposition, and even Skeleton Preparation serve to recycle our remains and are one sure way we all will get to be forever.
NPS, 2006. Vertebrate Skeletons: Preparation and Storage: Conserve O Gram: National Park Service, 2006.
Skeleton Preparation: IChristian School Biology/Zoology Syllabus.
McQuilkin, Kyle. 1998. AN ARTICULATED PHYTOSAUR SKELETON: PREPARATION TECHNIQUES FROM FIELD TO EXHIBIT. MA Thesis, Texas Tech. Univ. 1998. 120p.
Dermestarium. Stephen H. Hinshaw, Coordinator of Museum Collections,
Mammal Division University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.
SKULL PREPARATION. Will’s Skull Page: www.skullsite.co.uk
Skull Preparation Stages: A Pictorial Guide: Will’s Skull Page: www.skullsite.co.uk.
The Boneman.com A Source of Books on Skeletal Reconstruction
US Patent References: Method for the preparation of skeletal mounts: Lepaw – July 1956 &ndash US Pat. # 2755165.
Citrus by-products for animal feed
Of about 70 species of citrus only two, the grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) and the sweet orange (C. sinensis Pers.), are industrially processed on a large scale, mainly for juice or sections. The by-products are peel, rag (the stringy axis and white fibrous membrane) and&mdashdepending on the method of processing&mdashcitrus molasses and citrus seed meal. Another citrus fruit, the lime (C. aurantifolia [Cristm.] Swingle), is of importance in some countries where it is processed to yield lime oil and lime juice. The method of processing this fruit is different from that for grapefruit and sweet oranges and is dealt with separately.
In many countries the citrus industry supplies feed for animals from the large quantities of by-products. The harvest usually coincides with the dry season when grass is scarce. This article is an attempt to bring together available information on ways of utilizing the surpluses and industrial by-products.
The grass in citrus orchards is usually not grazed as mature cattle could reach the fruits on the trees. Fallen grapefruit and oranges, as well as lemons, are eagerly eaten and these, together with surplus and unmarketable fruits, can be used for feeding cattle. Intakes of up to 40 kg per day have been reported with no apparent harmful effects (Volcani, 1956) apart from the danger that the whole fruit may obstruct the oesophagus. The fruits should therefore preferably be cut before feeding. This can most easily be done by passing the fruits across a frame on which parallel sharp knives or saw-blades are mounted a few centimetres apart.
There are conflicting views as to whether or not fresh citrus fruits will affect the taste of milk. It seems that grapefruit in particular should be offered to dairy cows only soon after milking in order to avoid flavoured milk. Citrus fruits have sometimes a beneficial effect on milk yield and may also temporarily raise the butterfat content (Volcani, 1956). Attention should be given to protein and mineral supplements when feeding fresh citrus products because they provide little protein, calcium or phosphorus.
Pigs prefer oranges and tangerines to grapefruit and the free choice feeding of citrus fruits, together with a protein supplement, has given good results with these animals (Gohl, 1970).
When oranges or grapefruit are processed for juice or sections, 45 to 60 percent of their weight remains in the form of peel, rag and seeds (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1962). This waste is palatable to cattle and mature cows will, when they are accustomed to the feed, consume about 10 kg per day. Because of the high water content and the perishable nature of the waste, economically it can only be used close to the processing plant. The feed is rather difficult to handle, will ferment and sour quickly, and can be a fly-breeding nuisance if allowed to spoil. The large amounts which are available during the harvesting season can be ensiled for year-round feeding, but as citrus pulp is rather moist the silage loses up to 40 or 50 percent of its fresh weight during fermentation (Volcani, 1956). It is more advantageous to mix the fresh pulp with partially dried grass or with legumes which cannot be successfully ensiled on their own. The liquid lost from the pulp will then be absorbed by the green fodder. The silage has a pleasant odour and is readily eaten by cattle. Citrus pulp silage has a much higher weight per volume than that of grass or maize silage and therefore silos in which it is to be placed should be more strongly reinforced. This problem does not apply to trench silos.
Citrus pulp can be easily ammoniated. The simplest method is to load the waste into a long polyethylene sleeve and let ammonia gas from a &ldquobomb&rdquo (ammonia under compression in a steel cylinder) into one end. The progress of the ammonia is easily followed as it turns the pulp brown and heats it. When the ammonia reaches the other (open) end of the sleeve the gas is turned off and the excess ammonia is aired off from the pulp before it is fed to cattle. The added nitrogen is insoluble in water and is stably bound to the organic matter, apparently combining with the pectin. The crude protein digestibility of ammoniated citrus pulp is about 60 percent (Volcani and Roderig, 1953).
To increase the usefulness of citrus pulp it can be preserved by drying, but direct drying is difficult because of the slimy consistency of the waste. It has been found that the hydrophilic nature of the pectin in the waste can be destroyed by adding lime. The machinery for drying is expensive and the process is economical only where large amounts of waste accumulate. The first step in the drying process is the addition of 0.5 percent lime to the shredded skins to neutralize the free acids and to bind the fruit pectin. There are then two methods of further processing:
T able 1. Composition of citrus feeds
- The excess moisture is removed in a press before drying the pulp. The press liquor may be discarded, or concentrated under reduced pressure to 60 or 70 percent dry matter and used as animal feed (citrus molasses).
- The entire wet material is dried directly in a rotary drier. This method is practical in areas with access to natural gas or other low-cost fuels.
Dried citrus pulp that has been pressed before drying is somewhat lower in nitrogen-free extract. Only the contents of ash, fibre and water are consistent, while protein, fat and nitrogen-free extract vary according to season, the proportions of oranges and grapefruit used, and also the quantity of seeds in the fruits.
Citrus pulp is the most versatile of the citrus feeds it is palatable, rich in nutrients, easily mixed with other feed ingredients and exerts a mildly laxative effect. It can be stored for all-year feeding and deteriorates less in storage than many other feeds. Rodents and birds are not particularly attracted to it. Dried citrus pulp is slightly hygroscopic and should therefore be stored in as dry a place as possible.
The major disadvantages of this feed &mdash bulkiness, its varied particle size and its characteristic of &ldquobridging over&rdquo discharge outlets of storage bins &mdash can be overcome by pelleting. The process used at present for pressing feeds into pellets requires a high consumption of power and has a low plant capacity, factors which tend to make pellets more expensive than other forms of feed. Only citrus pulp intended for the rapidly growing export market is now pelleted. A new method that takes advantage of the fact that wet citrus pulp approaches a semiplastic state under pressure has been developed (Shoemyen, 1969): the pulp (not treated with lime) is mixed with molasses and extruded under low pressure in a continous process.
No difference is made between dried pulp from oranges and grapefruit. Because of the method of processing it is a good source of calcium, but it contains little phosphorus. Due to this imbalance it is necessary to ensure that calcium and phosphorus levels are adequate and are of the right ratio when dried citrus pulp is included in the diet.
F igure 1. Processing and canning of tropical fruit in Peru.
In some case cattle grazing on phosphorus-deficient land and being fed the pulp in large amounts have become ill because of an improper calcium to phosphorus ratio. As citrus pulp has a low vitamin A content, green leafy roughage should be an important ingredient in rations with high levels of the pulp.
F igure 2. Adding citrus molasses to maize silage in Kenya.
Dried citrus pulp has been used as the main energy source for beef cattle and heifers, and up to 45 percent has been used in calf rations. However, the pulp should not be used at high levels for milking cows as milk production tends to decrease. Digestibility trials with sheep show that its digestibility decreases when citrus pulp is included at levels in excess of 30 percent of the ration (Devendra, 1971). In a review of 73 experiments (Kirk and Koger, 1970) no significant differences in gain or energy conversion between steers fed rations of maize or of dried citrus pulp were found when each was combined with adequate protein and other essential nutrients. A positive correlation (r = 0.46) was found between percent of energy from dried citrus pulp and dressed carcass percentage. In other experiments (Boucque et al., 1969) with high-energy diets given to young bulls, where dried citrus pulp replaced dried sugar-beet pulp on a weight-for-weight basis, no significant differences were found with respect to dry matter intake, feed conversion, daily gain or carcass quality.
Substances toxic to swine and poultry are present in dried citrus pulp that includes seeds, and the high content of fibre also restricts its use in pig and poultry rations. However, dried citrus pulp has been used as poultry deep litter which has subsequently been used with good results as livestock feed (Harms et al., 1968).
The liquid obtained from pressing citrus waste with 9 to 15 percent soluble solids, of which 60 to 75 percent are sugars (Hendrickson and Kesterton, 1964), can be concentrated to become citrus molasses. Without this further processing the liquor has a high biological oxygen demand and can create a waste problem if dumped into lakes or streams. It may indeed amount to more than half of the total weight of the waste.
Citrus molasses is normally a thick viscous liquid which is dark brown to almost black in colour and has a very bitter taste. This taste does not affect its usefulness in cattle feeding, however, and in fact it can be used in the same way as, sugarcane molasses. It may be mixed with pressed pulp prior to drying and thus the energy content is increased in the dried product without destroying the keeping quality of the pulp. When fed free choice to cattle up to 3 kg per day are consumed. It is not so readily accepted by pigs.
T able 2. Digestibility of citrus feeds in trials with sheep
|Digestibility||Number of animals|
|Organic matter||Crude protein||Crude fibre||Ether extract||Nitrogen-free extract|
|Whole fresh orange||64.4||82.3||44.1||99.2||3|
|Silage of orange pulp||53.1||76.4||65.2||93.5||6|
|Dried citrus pulp||83.0||41.1||79.7||100.0||87.7||3|
Citrus seeds are sometimes collected separately at the canning plants and subjected to an oil extraction process. The resulting oil cake is usually called citrus seed meal and compares favourably with many sources of vegetable protein. However, it contains limonin, a factor toxic to pigs and especially to poultry. Citrus seed meal is therefore unsuitable for these animals because at 5 percent inclusion it will reduce growth and at 20 percent it will cause mortality in growing chickens (Driggers et al., 1951). It is acceptable to ruminants and comparable to cottonseed oil cake with the same percentage of crude protein. There is thus no restriction on its inclusion in diets for ruminants.
The lime fruit resembles a small orange with a thin skin, either green or yellow in colour. It is cultivated because of its aromatic taste and is processed into lime oil and lime juice. After the lime fruits have been crushed and the juice and the oil have been squeezed out, the skins are discarded. Lime processing plants are usually too small to justify a drying plant. The skins are a good feed either fresh, sun-dried or ensiled. The seeds are usually collected separately in the plant. They are rich in fat and protein and should be mixed with the skins and given only to cattle. Due to the presence of toxic factors in the seeds, they should not be fed to poultry and only with care to pigs. Such feeds tend to produce soft fat in pigs. Ruminants can, however, tolerate them.
If lime skins are fed in large quantities to dairy cows the morning milk may have a weak off-flavour and be opalescent. Farmers using the feed claim that lime skins rid cattle of ticks and give their coats a glossy sheen.
By-products from the citrus industry can make an important addition to the amount of locally produced feed for animals. In countries where the quantity of peel and rag from canning industries is large, drying is in most cases the preferred way of conservation because dried citrus pulp is easy to handle, to transport and to mix into compound feeds. Close to 700 000 tons of such dried citrus pulp are produced yearly in the United States. The cost of drying can be estimated at about US$40 per ton of the dry meal (10 percent moisture). Other countries producing dried citrus pulp for local use as feed include Trinidad with a yearly production of 4 000 tons and Jamaica where two plants produce a total of 4 500 tons per year.
B ondi , A. & M eyer , H. 1942. The digestibility of citrus feeds. Emp. J. exp. Agric., 10: 93&ndash95.
B oucque , C h . V., C ottyn , B.G. & B uysse , F.X. 1969. Production intensive de viande bovine à base de pellets de pulpes séchées d'agrumes et de pellets de pulpes séchées de betteraves sucrières. Revue Agric., 11&ndash12: 1553&ndash1570.
D evendra , C. 1971. M.A.R.D.I., Malaysia. Personal communication.
D evendra , C. & G ohl . B.I. 1970. The chemical composition of Caribbean feedingstuffs. Trop. Agric. Trin., 4: 335&ndash342.
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Dried Distillers Grains (DDGs) Have Emerged as a Key Ethanol Coproduct
Ethanol production has increased dramatically since the early 2000s, driven by the Renewable Fuel Standard established by Congress in 2005 and expanded in 2007. Since the 2005 corn marketing year (September-August), ethanol production increased by 288 percent from roughly 4.5 billion gallons to over 17 billion in the 2017/18 marketing year and now represents over 37 percent of U.S. corn usage. In addition to ethanol’s significant impact on U.S. corn usage, refining ethanol produces several coproducts that are commodities in their own right. ERS researchers analyzed USDA bioenergy data to understand the size of these coproduct markets. Dried distillers grains, or DDGs, were the most significant coproduct from ethanol production, in both size and value.
Dried distillers grains are a major coproduct from the production of ethanol from grain. DDGs are typically used as a protein-rich animal feed. While distillers grains are sold locally in wet form, weight precludes shipping long distances. For longer distances, DDGs are dried to about 10 percent moisture to reduce weight. Value-additive innovation continues in the ethanol coproducts space, including the growing use of pelletized DDGs. Pellets provide a storable, easily handled form of DDGs that are compressed into small nuggets that can be bagged or shipped in bulk. DDGs substitute roughly 1-to-1 for corn grain in feed rations. When blended into the animal feed, DDGs provide a high-protein meal that is readily available to the animals. DDGs are most commonly used in feeding cattle, dairy cows, swine, and some poultry.
DDG production from ethanol is projected to reach roughly 38 million metric tons (MT) in 2018/19. Mirroring expanding ethanol production, DDG production has trended upward since the early 2000s, although 2018/19 marks the first year-over-year decrease. Since 2005/06, DDG production in the United States has risen by 318 percent from just over 9 million MT to 38.5 million MT in 2017/18. While supply has grown significantly, upward price trends suggest that demand has kept pace with supply. Since 2005/06, nominal average annual prices have risen by 72 percent, averaging roughly $147 dollars per ton in 2017/18. In addition to the fuel ethanol by-product, an additional 1 million metric tons of DDGs are produced from beverage distilleries.