Information

Jamaican/Caribbean insect, plant identification keys/field guides


Where can I find plant and insect identification keys and Field guides for Jamaica specifically, or for the Caribbean as a whole?

I've searched Amazon and google for Jamaican and Caribbean identification keys/field guides, to no avail. I'm taking pictures of organisms in my backyard, and I want to identify them and post them to iNaturalist. For my own sake I want to be able to identify them myself, prior to and independent of the (long) wait for a community ID to be given and confirmed.


I've never been to nor botanized Jamaica or the Caribbean, but a quick Google search turned up the following references for Jamaican plants:

  • Iremonger, S., 2002. Guide to the Plants in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. University of West Indies Press, 280p. ISBN: 9789766400316

  • Fawcett, W. and A. B. Rendle. 1910. Flora of Jamaica, containing Descriptions of the Flowering Plants known from the island. Longmans & Company. Found here.

You can also find a list of Jamaican species on Wikipedia and a list of medicinal plants in Jamaica here.


Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poaceae), is a highly valued crop cultivated worldwide, with the grain and stover being of equal importance in some developing countries. Sorghum can produce high yields even under adverse environmental conditions, however, damage from insect pests at various stages of the plant’s development can reduce its productivity, impacting low-income farmers in developing countries. Important sorghum insect pests include leaf-sucking species, leaf-feeding species, stalk or stem borers, pests of the panicle and of the stored grain. Modern control strategies include cultural controls, biological control, pesticides (chemical, botanicals, or microbial), and host plant resistance. An integrated approach is recommended and based on a combination of insect growth regulators and conservation practices to protect natural enemies at the landscape level. Long-term successful management also requires regulatory policies to limit the invasion of new pests.

One of the most important cereal grain crops worldwide is sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poaceae). The grain is used for food, preparation of beverages and biofuel, while the stalks are used for animal feed, fuel, and fence construction in some rural areas ( Srinivasa Rao et al. 2014, Werle et al. 2016). Over 90% of sorghum grain is for food, being a staple diet in parts of Asia and Africa. In the United States, sorghum is mainly used for ethanol production and as livestock feed ( Paterson 2008, Werle et al. 2016). The increase in use as a food crop in high-income countries is based on studies showing the anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-lowering properties of the grain and its byproducts ( Althwab et al. 2015, Vanamala et al. 2018). Increased knowledge of the bioactive compounds in grain sorghum and greater public acceptance of sorghum in breakfast cereals, sorghum drinks, and other products suggests higher potential future consumption of sorghum in the United States ( Poquette et al. 2014), Brazil ( Anunciação et al. 2017), South Africa ( Adeyanju et al. 2019), and Kenya ( De Groote et al. 2020). This acceptance of sorghum should increase food supplies in both rural and urban areas.

In the United States, sorghum is the second most important grain used for ethanol production ( Paterson 2008, Werle et al. 2016). It grows well in various climates, can withstand adverse conditions, and is widely used as feedstock for ethanol production because of its high biomass yield ( Bennett and Anex 2009, Gonzalez et al. 2011). Moreover, bioethanol sorghum production is energy efficient ( Wang et al. 2014) and has the potential to be a source for renewable transportation fuel ( Rooney et al. 2007) that could be used in passenger cars ( Forte et al. 2017).

Sorghum is a highly adaptable crop that can withstand varying levels of soil fertilities, drought, and diverse temperatures while producing high yields some hybrids have been shown to produce higher yields following periods of drought stress ( Borrell et al. 2000). However, insect pest damage poses a threat to sorghum’s productivity. Insect pests attack various developmental stages of the plant, from seeds to seedlings, whorls, flowering structures, and mature grain. About 150 insect species (in 29 families) affect sorghum worldwide (reviewed in Guo et al. 2011) and these insects can be key, secondary or occasional pests ( Table 1). In this review, we discuss the biology of important sorghum pests in different regions, current management strategies, and prospective control tactics for sorghum insect pests.

A list of the insect pests of sorghum

. Common name . Insect species . Part infested & damage . Distribution and pest status .
Soil and root pests
White grubs Phyllophaga crinita Phyllophaga genusFeed on seedling root, withering, plants not killed as seedlings will be stunted, root pruning, lodging United States, Asia, Africa
Leaf-feeding pests
Greenbug Shizaphis graminimSuck plant sap, inject toxin that kills leaves, virus vector, and disease predisposer Key pest worldwide
Sugarcane aphids Melanaphis sacchariSucks sap from lower leaves, purple leaf discoloration, chlorosis, necrosis, stunting, delay in flowering, and poor grain fill Key pest worldwide
Shoot fly Antherigona soccataInjure growing point, causing deadheart Key pest in Africa and Asia
Stalk-borer pests
Sorghum borer Chilo partellusSome are leaf feeding, boring in stalk may cause stalk lodging, stunting of plants or sometimes killing the main shoot Key pest in Africa and Asia
African maize stem borer Busseola fuscaBoring in stalk Africa
Head and panicle pests
Sorghum midge Stenodiplosis sorghicolaFeed and destroy developing ovary and seeds Key pest worldwide
Stink bugs Feed on developing seed, causing smaller, lighter, distorted seeds Occasional pest worldwide
Sorghum earheadbug Calocoris angustatusSucks sap from developing grain causing smaller, lighter, and distorted seeds Key pest in Asia
Post-harvest/stored pests
Lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominicaConsume whole grain in storage Occasional pest worldwide
Rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae
Maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais
Angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella
Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctellaFeed on cracked grain, secondary feeder Occasional pest worldwide
Grain mite Acarus siro
Confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum
Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum
. Common name . Insect species . Part infested & damage . Distribution and pest status .
Soil and root pests
White grubs Phyllophaga crinita Phyllophaga genusFeed on seedling root, withering, plants not killed as seedlings will be stunted, root pruning, lodging United States, Asia, Africa
Leaf-feeding pests
Greenbug Shizaphis graminimSuck plant sap, inject toxin that kills leaves, virus vector, and disease predisposer Key pest worldwide
Sugarcane aphids Melanaphis sacchariSucks sap from lower leaves, purple leaf discoloration, chlorosis, necrosis, stunting, delay in flowering, and poor grain fill Key pest worldwide
Shoot fly Antherigona soccataInjure growing point, causing deadheart Key pest in Africa and Asia
Stalk-borer pests
Sorghum borer Chilo partellusSome are leaf feeding, boring in stalk may cause stalk lodging, stunting of plants or sometimes killing the main shoot Key pest in Africa and Asia
African maize stem borer Busseola fuscaBoring in stalk Africa
Head and panicle pests
Sorghum midge Stenodiplosis sorghicolaFeed and destroy developing ovary and seeds Key pest worldwide
Stink bugs Feed on developing seed, causing smaller, lighter, distorted seeds Occasional pest worldwide
Sorghum earheadbug Calocoris angustatusSucks sap from developing grain causing smaller, lighter, and distorted seeds Key pest in Asia
Post-harvest/stored pests
Lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominicaConsume whole grain in storage Occasional pest worldwide
Rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae
Maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais
Angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella
Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctellaFeed on cracked grain, secondary feeder Occasional pest worldwide
Grain mite Acarus siro
Confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum
Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum

A list of the insect pests of sorghum

. Common name . Insect species . Part infested & damage . Distribution and pest status .
Soil and root pests
White grubs Phyllophaga crinita Phyllophaga genusFeed on seedling root, withering, plants not killed as seedlings will be stunted, root pruning, lodging United States, Asia, Africa
Leaf-feeding pests
Greenbug Shizaphis graminimSuck plant sap, inject toxin that kills leaves, virus vector, and disease predisposer Key pest worldwide
Sugarcane aphids Melanaphis sacchariSucks sap from lower leaves, purple leaf discoloration, chlorosis, necrosis, stunting, delay in flowering, and poor grain fill Key pest worldwide
Shoot fly Antherigona soccataInjure growing point, causing deadheart Key pest in Africa and Asia
Stalk-borer pests
Sorghum borer Chilo partellusSome are leaf feeding, boring in stalk may cause stalk lodging, stunting of plants or sometimes killing the main shoot Key pest in Africa and Asia
African maize stem borer Busseola fuscaBoring in stalk Africa
Head and panicle pests
Sorghum midge Stenodiplosis sorghicolaFeed and destroy developing ovary and seeds Key pest worldwide
Stink bugs Feed on developing seed, causing smaller, lighter, distorted seeds Occasional pest worldwide
Sorghum earheadbug Calocoris angustatusSucks sap from developing grain causing smaller, lighter, and distorted seeds Key pest in Asia
Post-harvest/stored pests
Lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominicaConsume whole grain in storage Occasional pest worldwide
Rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae
Maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais
Angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella
Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctellaFeed on cracked grain, secondary feeder Occasional pest worldwide
Grain mite Acarus siro
Confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum
Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum
. Common name . Insect species . Part infested & damage . Distribution and pest status .
Soil and root pests
White grubs Phyllophaga crinita Phyllophaga genusFeed on seedling root, withering, plants not killed as seedlings will be stunted, root pruning, lodging United States, Asia, Africa
Leaf-feeding pests
Greenbug Shizaphis graminimSuck plant sap, inject toxin that kills leaves, virus vector, and disease predisposer Key pest worldwide
Sugarcane aphids Melanaphis sacchariSucks sap from lower leaves, purple leaf discoloration, chlorosis, necrosis, stunting, delay in flowering, and poor grain fill Key pest worldwide
Shoot fly Antherigona soccataInjure growing point, causing deadheart Key pest in Africa and Asia
Stalk-borer pests
Sorghum borer Chilo partellusSome are leaf feeding, boring in stalk may cause stalk lodging, stunting of plants or sometimes killing the main shoot Key pest in Africa and Asia
African maize stem borer Busseola fuscaBoring in stalk Africa
Head and panicle pests
Sorghum midge Stenodiplosis sorghicolaFeed and destroy developing ovary and seeds Key pest worldwide
Stink bugs Feed on developing seed, causing smaller, lighter, distorted seeds Occasional pest worldwide
Sorghum earheadbug Calocoris angustatusSucks sap from developing grain causing smaller, lighter, and distorted seeds Key pest in Asia
Post-harvest/stored pests
Lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominicaConsume whole grain in storage Occasional pest worldwide
Rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae
Maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais
Angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella
Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctellaFeed on cracked grain, secondary feeder Occasional pest worldwide
Grain mite Acarus siro
Confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum
Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum

Mycological Resources on the Internet: Regional inventories and guides

A comprehensive, ongoing floristic study of the mushrooms (Agaricales) of montane oak forests in Costa Rica, including data on biodiversity and annotated color images. Keys to various genera are provided. Interactive keys to species of Leccinum and Phylloporus are available for users of DELTA software (q.v.).

Mushrooms occuring in Java and Bali are documented in these pages.

Both native and introduced mushrooms are found on the Hawaiian Islands, the latter being especially plentiful. This site includes photographs and catalogs of Hawaiian agarics.

This project aims to create a baseline inventory of the Basidiomycetes of the Greater Antilles, a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. The study area includes Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and also some islands of the Lesser Antilles: St. John and the US Virgin Islands. These web pages include some nice photographs of mushrooms and their allies, and keys to selected genera. D.J. Lodge, T.J. Baroni, L. Ryvarden, and K.K. Nakasone are the principal investigators.

This project has so far generated lichen checklists from Israel, Italy, Morocco, Slovenia, Tunisia, Turkey, and Ukraine.

An online version of The Boletes of California, by H.D. Thiers (1975). Includes keys and species descriptions. Made available through Myko Web (q.v.).

A searchable database of over 2,700 species of fungi recorded in Brazil by A.C. Batista and his co-workers between 1950 and the late 1970s.

The British Lichen Society provides information on membership, as well as on lichens in churchyards and on manmade surfaces, a list of lichens of the British Isles, and a key to Parmelia species.

The Great Smokies National Park Fungus ATBI (All-Taxa Biological Inventory) is affectionately called "Butterflies of the Soil." The web site documents its progress.

Lichenized members of the Caliciales are treated on this site, which provides keys, illustrations, and taxonomic and ecological information, with a focus on Scandinavian representation.

This site includes information on the flora and fauna of central Texas, USA. Jerry Evans has developed a nice guide to noncrustose lichens growing on trees at the Miller Springs Nature Center, and is developing a treatment of the mushrooms, too.

Joe O'Rourke's pages on the flora and fauna of central New York State (USA) include some images of macrofungi.

T.L. Esslinger's cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada is an important resource for American lichenologists. It includes lists of synonyms and some nomenclatural notes.

This site provides lichen checklists for many countries, worldwide. It is conveniently browsable via clickable maps.

A WWW adaptation of Roy Halling's 1983 monograph entitled "A revision of Collybia sensu lato in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada." The site includes an online key and index to taxa in Collybia, Rhodocollybia, and Gymnopus.

This online guide to tree diseases includes a glossary, a host-fungus index, and numerous color photographs of diseases occurring in British Columbia, Canada.

Qiuxin Wu and Greg Mueller document fungi which have disjunct distributions in China and eastern North America.

The CCFB is building a database of fungal diversity at the Lindsay-Parsons Biodiversity Preserve in Central New York, including images. The Preserve is owned by the Finger Lakes Land Trust.

Dave Fischer's pages provide plentiful information on Dave's books and the mushrooms of northeastern North America. Here too you can find the Real Answers about mushrooms through his "Mushroom Basics" guide and some tall tales of mushroomery.

The developing Digital Exsiccate Pages provide thorough descriptions of genera and species of fungi with illustrations and keys to species. They are an impressive effort of the mycology program at University Tübingen in Germany and the University of Göteborg, Sweden.

Distribution maps of more than 30,000 fungi from the Caucausus, a biodiversity hotspot.

Distribution maps of more than 10,000 fungi from islands in the Caribbean Sea. In English and Spanish. Based largely on the book: Minter, D.W. et al. (2001). Fungi of the Caribbean. An annotated checklist. 946 pp. PDMS Publishing.

Distribution maps of more than 70,000 fungi from the Ukraine, the largest country in Europe.

Identification tools for various agarics and boletes, in English, French, Dutch, and German. The site includes keys to European Psilocybe spp., subgeneric taxa of Entoloma, Hemimycena, Lactarius and boletes. Beautiful color images and line drawings illustrate relevant features. The site makes a good technical introduction to these complex mushroom genera.

Fungi of the Duke Forest (NC, USA) are being studied in situ for the first time using molecular methods. Visitors can view images and search for collections.

This page features mushrooms of Lewis and Clark College in Portland, Oregon (USA). A mushroom-picking primer is also provided by the author, Wes Stone.

The mushrooms of Belgium are illustrated in this photogallery.

The freshwater ascomycete database is a nomenclatural and bibliographical compilation of water-dwelling unitunicate and bitunicate taxa, their substrates and distributions, and their anamorphic states. Mangrove fungi are now included. Maintained by Carol Shearer.

Photo galleries of the mushrooms of Finland and Sweden.

An ambitious and timely series of books documenting the fungi of Australia.

A site including over 2000 images of mushrooms of Poland.

Lots of beautiful images of mushrooms found in southern England.

The Kaimai -Mamaku Forest Park, in New Zealand, is home to the many interesting fungi that are illustrated on this site.

A different fungal image every week or so, photographed in Tennessee, USA.

Fungimap is an Australian project aiming to improve our understanding of the distribution of native Australian fungi. In particular the site focuses on 100 target species. The Fungimap website includes the newsletter, and provides information on the target species and other fungi of Australia.

This Italian society of mycophiles presents their beautifully illustrated newsletter, "Bollettino del Gruppo Micologico G. Bresadola - Nuova Serie" (see the special issues on Amanita and Xerocomus), and a lovely annotated image gallery of mushrooms that is a must-see.

This mycological society in Asti, Italy provides illustrated guides to species of Helvella, Peziza, Boletus, and Inocybe that occur in Italy (in Italian).

Common mushrooms of Menorca are illustrated on this page.

The fungi of Veracruz, Mexico, are illustrated and described here. Phallales and mushrooms are a particular focus.The site includes the beautifully illustrated fact sheets that comprise the series Fungi Veracruzana (in Spanish).

Mike Walton's index to fungal illustrations published in the British Mycological Society journals "The Mycologist" and "Field Mycology."

The fungi of Veracruz, Mexico are illustrated on this site. Technical descriptions of selected species form the series Funga Veracruziana (in Spanish. I particularly recommend the site for its images of stinkhorns (Phallales).

Many, many scanned images of mushrooms and allies, from photographs taken by John C. Tacoma, 1968-1978. Maintained by the Library of Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis.

A journal aimed at furthering study of the difficult genus Cortinarius in Europe. There's a nice gallery of photos. In German, French, English and Italian!

A site maintained by CABI that is devoted to the fungi of Kenya, including images of microfungi.

The British Lichen Society makes available this dichotomous key to the lichen genus Parmelia.

An online key for identifying the Tricholoma species of Quebec by Yves Lamoureux and Jean Despres.

Photographs of the mushrooms and other macrofungi of Japan.

Mushrooms of the Kisatchie National Forest of central Louisiana.

Greg Mueller's handsome monograph of the mushroom genus Laccaria in North America includes keys, phylogenetic trees, photographs, morphological and ecological information.

Lists and illustrations of species of the mushroom genus Lactarius that occur in Sweden (in Swedish).

This site provides a survey of lichen research going on at the Smithsonian Inst. (Washington D.C., USA). Among the included resources are checklists and keys for the lichenized fungi recorded from the Guianas a nomenclator of names in the Parmeliaceae a list of lichen types in the US National Herbarium and a brief introduction to lichens.

A searchable listing of lichen species recorded from US National Parks is available through the Wisconsin Cooperative Park Studies Unit at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

The Ozarks are a mountainous region in central North America (mainly in Missouri and Arkansas). This site provides a checklist and treatments of a couple of lichen genera (Bacidia and Protoblastenia).

A site maintained by CABI that is devoted to the fungi of Malawi. Images, ethnomycology and local names of a diversity of wild edibles.

This project aims to provide information on the distribution and diversity of Norwegian macromycetes (larger fungi) in order to better understand and conserve fungal biodiversity.

The US Forest Service provides this interesting site on the matsutake mushroom harvest in Winema National Forest, Oregon (USA).

Website of a small mycological museum in Spain.

Many photographs illustrate the mushrooms of Greece--particularly those of the northeast near Xanthi (in English and Greek).

The Hampshire Fungus Recording group provides these images of mushrooms and their kin.

Mycology students at Duke University (NC, USA) have prepared this site documenting the mushrooms of North Carolina. Their excellent photographs are available here.

A field guide to macrofungi by A.E. Bessette, A.R. Bessette, and D.W. Fischer (1997).

This site is really a few different sites. One illustrates some of the macrofungi of Scotland one describes the cultivation of mushrooms and a third (luxgene) depicts bioluminescent organisms, including a few fungi.

Photographs and descriptions of some (mainly European) species of the mushroom genus Mycena are provided by Arne Aronsen.

A page devoted to the delightful little mushroom genus, Mycena. A key and photographs are provided for the Mycena species of Norway.

An impressive site dedicated to amateur mycology, MykoWeb includes recipes, a listing of mushroom events, a useful bibliography of works on secotioid and hypogeous fungi. Identification resources include guides to the Fungi of California (USA), the Fungi of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and an online version of H.D. Thiers' 1975 monograph, California Mushrooms: A Field Guide to the Boletes. For a treat, see the scans of the color plates from M.C. Cooke's 1894 book, Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms.

The North American Lichen Project includes essays on lichen biology and the uses of lichens by people and animals, as well as excerpts and lovely photographs from the forthcoming book Lichens of North America, by I.M. Brodo, S.D. Sharnoff, and S. Sharnoff (Yale University Press).

NZFungi is a database of fungal species reported from New Zealand. It includes a searchable interface for names, bibliographic references, collection data, and other attributes, and can generate distribution maps to illustrate its records. It is a handsome effort. It's worth finding the right web browser (a recent version of Internet Explorer) to fully access the data.

This French site has nice images of common mushrooms found on l'Ile de France, and an introduction to mushroom hunting (in French).

This fine site provides comprehensive information on the discomycete order Pezizales (cup fungi which have operculate asci). The nice synoptic key will help you identify your specimens, especially if you collected them in western North America.

The site documents an ongoing project of the New York Botanic Garden on the flora of French Guiana. It currently includes preliminary information on pyrenomycetes and loculoascomycetes from Sabine Huhndorf, as well as information on plant diversity.

The PLANTS database from the National Plant Data Center is now accessible on the WWW. It includes the names and distributions of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens reported from continental North America excluding Mexico.

A checklist of over 200 species of polypores found in Sweden with information on distribution, ecology and preferred substrate.

Keys and illustrations of pyrenomycetes found in the Southwest of France.

The biota of Quoditch Nature Reserve (U.K.) are documented on this site, which includes a selection of macrofungi.

The good-tasting mushrooms of Michigan (USA) are spotlighted on Ralph Czerepinski's pretty web pages. Also to be found here are useful and intelligent reviews of various field guides to North American fungi. These pages have not been updated in recent months.

Information on Russian lichens, including keys, images, and a bibliography. Mostly in Russian.

These fine keys and information on the stromatic inoperculate discomycetes were prepared by Trond Schumacher and Arne Holst-Jensen. They focus on those taxa found in the Nordic countries.

Mushroom hunters everywhere will appreciate these mushroom pages, which include fine images of "good, bad and ugly" mushrooms in Slovenia, as well as recipes and a mycological glossary.

Mushrooms and other creatures of a small nature preserve in Diemen, the Netherlands.

Dr. Rod Tulloss (USA) has teamed up with Dr. Zhu-liang Yang (China) to produce these important pages on the genus Amanita. They include photos, keys, and technical descriptions of selected world species.

These webpages document an ongoing Survey of North Illinois and Indiana Fungi (USA), by John F. Murphy and Gregory M. Mueller. Background on the project and images of macrofungi are provided.

Mapping the distributions of swiss macrofungi.

Photographs of the macrofungi of Tayside, Scotland can be found on these pages.

The Texas Plant Disease Handbook is a pretty comprehensive guide to plant diseases and the organisms that cause them.

A lovely site devoted to New Zealand mushrooms, the F Files has lots of photographs to tempt you to visit New Zealand on a foray.

A wonderful online field guide to the mushrooms, lichens, and slime molds of New Zealand, with many fine photographs. (Formerly entitled "Forest Fungi").

This yucky-sounding website is actually a lovely treatment of a subgenus of the very large mushroom genus, Cortinarius. Species of Cortinarius subgenus Phlegmacium in Denmark and neighboring Europe are named and illustrated on this site.

The mushrooms of Netherlands and Switzerland are illustrated in this lovely gallery of photos.

A checklist and illustrations of species of the elegant mushroom genus Tricholoma in Denmark.

These pages by R.W. Lichtwardt and L.C. Ferrington document on ongoing project on the taxonomy and co-evolution of Trichomycetes (fungi that inhabit insect guts) and their blackfly hosts. Keys to trichomycete orders and genera, an extensive literature database, and an overview of trichomycete systematics.

The Lichen Type Specimen Register (includes lichens and bryophytes) at the Smithsonian Institution is searchable. A checklist of the lichenized fungi of the Guianas is also available.

The lichen holdings of the University of Arizona herbarium (USA) are searchable online, along with information on the Sonoran Desert Lichen Flora Project.

This site on fungi is part of a larger Virtual Field Guide that covers living things found in the U.K.

British waxcaps are featured on this site. Waxcaps are those brightly colored little fungi, common in British grasslands (but forest denizens in the Americas), in the genera Hygrocybe, Hygrophorus, Camarophyllus, etc. This site provides a nice introduction to their identification, conservation, and ecology. A key to British species is provided.


Contributed Resources

Contributed resources are phytosanitary technical resources that were developed by National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs), Regional Plant Protection Organizations (RPPOs) and other organizations for their own use and kindly provided the IPPC Secretariat as they are considered useful for other organizations too.

The IPPC Guides and training materials developed under the auspices of the IPPC Secretariat are available here.

How Contributed resources are made available on the IPP?

The IPPC Implementation and Capacity Development Committee (IC) reviews the provided resources against established criteria. Suitable materials are made available on this page.

How do I submit phytosanitary technical resources?

  There are two options:
Option 1: by email
You can submit your phytosanitary technical resources anytime to the IPPC Secretariat ( [email protected] ) by attaching the form. Please write "Contributed resources" in the subject line of your email.

If the resources are provided by files (pdf, power point presentations. etc) instead of web links, please also fill out the FAO permission request form and send it back to us as FAO requests a non-exclusive license to publish the resources in the FAO Document Repository at: http://www.fao.org/documents on behalf of the IPPC Secretariat to be then made available on the IPP.

How submit resources online

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  • Once logged in you can submit resources from the enabled button "+ Add new Contributed resource" below on this page.
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    1. Log in and click on the enabled button "Request access" below on this page.
    2. You will receive confirmation of access granted by email.
    3. Once logged in you can submit resources from the enabled button "+ Add new Contributed resource" below on this page.

Topic specific calls

The IPPC Secretariat periodically issues topic specific calls. Currently we are soliciting technical resources:

Update (2021-02-02) The following resources are added:

You can sort the resources by clicking "Title", "Resource provided by" or "Posted date".


Joint FAO/IAEA Programme - NAFA

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Tsetse flies

&bull Guidelines for Blood Collection, Processing and Quality Control for Tsetse Rearing Insectaries, Version 2.0 [pdf]. Vienna, Austria (2019)[.pdf]. This document is intended for use in laboratories and institutions that maintain colonies of tsetse flies. It describes the procedures for the collection of animal blood in the abattoir, decontamination through ionizing radiation, preservation and storage, quality control assurance and processing of the blood into diet for feeding tsetse flies.
&bull Standard Operating Procedures for Detection and Identification of Trypanosome Species in Tsetse Flies Version 1.0 [.pdf]. The manual provides an easy-to-use work flow that combines several different PCR-based methods that can be used for trypanosome detection and identification in field-caught tsetse flies and/or host blood samples collected from livestock and wildlife animals.
&bull Standard Operating Procedures for Identification of Tsetse Species from Wild Populations and Laboratory Colonies [pdf]. This document provides useful information to correctly identify specimens of nine tsetse flies species/subspecies derived from field collections or laboratory colonies using molecular techniques. Vienna, Austria (October 2018).
&bull Guidelines for Mature Tsetse Sterile Male Pupae Packaging for Long Distance Shipment [pdf]. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Centre, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria (May 2017).
&bull Standard operating procedure manual for sterile Tsetse release. This manual describes the standard procedures involved in preparing tsetse flies reared in a breeding facility for release in the field for the sterile insect technique (SIT). Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Centre, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria (November 2016).
&bull Standard Operational Procedures to Detect and Manage Glossina pallidipes Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (GpSGHV) in Tsetse Fly 'Factories' [pdf]. Vienna, Austria (2015).
&bull Collection of Entomological Baseline Data for Tsetse Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes [pdf]. FAO Animal and Heaalth Guidelines and Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. FAO, Roma, Italy (2008). ISBN 978-92-5-106158-9.
&bull Standard Operating Procedures for Mass-Rearing Tsetse Flies [pdf]. Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. IAEA, Vienna, Austria (2006).
&bull Integrating the Sterile Insect Technique as a Key Component of Area-Wide Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Intervention [pdf]. PAAT Technical and Scientific Series. FAO Agriculture and Consumer Protection. FAO, Roma, Italy (2001). ISBN 92-5-104646-8.
&bull A field guide for the Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of African Animal Trypanosomosis [pdf]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO, Rome, Italy (1998). ISBN 92-5-104238-1.

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Moths

&bull Rearing codling moth for the sterile insect technique [pdf]. FAO Plant Production and Protection and Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, FAO, Roma, Italy (2010). ISBN 978-92-5-106548-8.
&bull Cactoblastis cactorum. The biology, History, Threat, Surveillance and Control of the Cactus Moth [pdf]. Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. IAEA, Vienna, Austria (2007).

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Screwworm

&bull Manual for the Control of the Screwworm Fly Cochliomyia hominivorax, Coquerel [pdf]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO, Rome (1990).
&bull Manuel de Lutte Contre la Lucilie Bouchére Cochliomyia hominivorax, Coquerel [pdf]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO, Rome (1990).

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Mosquitoes

&bull Guidelines for Irradiation of Mosquito Pupae in Sterile Insect Technique Programmes [pdf]. This publication is intended as guidance for the irradiation of the pupal stage of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles arabiensis, for routine studies on the biological effects of radiation exposures, in particular, irradiation induced sterility in male (and female) mosquitoes.
&bull Guidance framework for testing the sterile insect technique as a vector control tool against Aedes-borne diseases [pdf]. This document is intended to be a comprehensive guide for programme managers tasked with recommending a “go/no-go” decision on testing, full deployment and scale-up of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in regions of the world affected by diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. However, the authors hope that the material presented herein will be used more widely—by scientists, decision makers, review groups and others.
&bull Guidelines For Mark-Release-Recapture Procedures of Aedes Mosquitoes_v1.0. [pdf]. The success of any Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) programme including a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) component relies on the ability of the irradiated sterile males to survive, disperse and compete sexually with their wild counterparts to induce sterility in wild females. In a phased conditional approach for such a programme, it is considered essential to estimate these quality control parameters (survival, dispersal and competitiveness) in field conditions using mark-release-recapture (MRR) trials during the baseline data collection phase before shifting to a pilot trial. The protocols presented in this guideline are the results of lessons from collaborations with Member States preparing SIT pilot trials against Aedes species.
&bull Guidelines for mass rearing of Aedes mosquitoes_v1.0. [pdf]. The number and production capacity of mass-rearing insectaries for Aedes mosquitoes is increasing as the SIT technology is being validated in field pilot projects. These guidelines have been developed to provide a description of procedures required for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mass-rearing. It is a summary of necessary steps of larval and adult mass-rearing as used at the FAO/IAEA. This guide will be continuously updated considering the improvements brought to the mass-rearing of mosquitoes.
&bull Spreadsheet for Designing Aedes Mosquito Mass-Rearing and Release Facilities Version 1.0.[pdf]. The number and production capacity of mass rearing insectaries for mosquitos is expected to increase in the coming years. This FAO/IAEA interactive Excel Spreadsheet has been developed to assists in technical and economic decision making associated with design, costing, construction, equipping, and facility operation. The spreadsheet is user friendly and thus largely self-explanatory. Nevertheless, it includes a basic instruction manual that has been prepared to guide the user, and thus should be used together with the software.
&bull Guidelines for Colonization of Aedes Mosquito Species - Version 1.0. This document aims to provide a description of procedures required for the establishment of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus colonies in your insectary or laboratory. It presents a summary of the necessary steps such as collecting material from the field, species identification, and adapting your wild colony to laboratory conditions and artificial rearing procedures. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Centre, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria, (May 2018).
&bull Mosquitoes SIT trifold [pdf]. The document contains in a nutshell a description of SIT use against mosquitoes from mass rearing to sterilization and release. It also contains basic elements necessary for the cost-effective application of area-wide SIT technology against mosquitoes vectors of disease. Vienna, Austria (April 2018).
&bull Guidelines for routine Colony Maintenance of Aedes Mosquito Species Version 1.0. [pdf]. This guideline aims to provide a description of procedures required for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus colony routine rearing. It is a summary of necessary steps such as optimizing climatic conditions in the insectary, egg hatching, larval rearing, pupal and larval sorting, sugar and blood feeding, egg collection, handling and storage, used at the FAO/IAEA Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) to build and maintain a lab colony. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Centre, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria, (November 2017).
&bull Guidelines for standardised mass rearing of Anopheles mosquitoes Version 1.0 [pdf]. The guideline provides a description of all procedures required for the mass-rearing of An. arabiensis using these newly designed adult cage and larval rearing unit, with a step-by-step guide to establishing, up-scaling and maintaining a large Anopheles colony, including all stages of the mosquito’s life cycle. Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Centre, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria, (October 2017).

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Miscellaneous

&bull Dose mapping by scanning Gafchromic® film to measure the absorbed dose of insects during their sterilization. The development of better system for dose distribution within an irradiation container and the development of an accurate dose-response curve for the target insect using precise dosimetry is a prerequisite of any programmes releasing sterile insects. This manual describes the operational procedures to develop dose maps by scanning Gafchromic film and the calibration of the system, to be used in the insect irradiation process for SIT programmes. The manual is also available in Spanish/Español.
&bull Technical Specification for an X-Ray System for the Irradiation of Insects for the Sterile Insect Technique and Other Related Technologies [pdf]. Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. IAEA, Vienna, Austria (August 2017).
&bull Manual for the Use of Stable Isotopes in Entomology [pdf]. IAEA-SI. IAEA, Vienna (2009). ISBN 978-92-0-102209-7.
&bull Model Business Plan for a Sterile Insect Production Facility. IAEA-MPB. IAEA, Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Centre, International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria (2008). ISBN 978-92-0-110007-8.
&bull Designing and Implementing a Geographical Information System: A Guide for Managers of Area-Wide Pest Management Programmes [pdf]. Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. IAEA, Vienna, Austria (2006).
&bull Gafchromic® dosimetry system for SIT - Standard operating procedure. Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. IAEA, Vienna, Austria (2000).
&bull Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Nuclear Techniques in Insect Research and Control - Third Edition [pdf]. IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 336. IAEA, Vienna (1992). ISBN 92-0-101792-8.
&bull Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology [pdf]. Second Edition. IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 61. STI/DOC/10/61/2, IAEA, Vienna (1977). ISBN 92-0-115177-2.
&bull Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology [pdf]. IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 61. STI/DOC/10/61, IAEA, Vienna (1966).

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Pygmy Date Palm

The pygmy date palm is a type of little palm tree with spiky trunk

As its common name suggests, the pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii) is a small-sized palm tree. This is a true type of palm in the family Arecaceae and it doesn’t grow taller than 10 ft. (3 m). The small palm tree can be identified by its single stem with long bushy pinnate fronds that measure around 3 ft. (1 m) long.

This palm species is an excellent ornamental flowering tree for subtropical landscaped gardens. The arching-drooping fronds of pygmy date palm are large and showy and almost hide the spiky-looking trunk. These short palm trees also grow well in containers.

Although pygmy palm trees produce dates, the fruit generally isn’t as tasty as dates that grow on larger date palms.


Contributed Resources

Contributed resources are phytosanitary technical resources that were developed by National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs), Regional Plant Protection Organizations (RPPOs) and other organizations for their own use and kindly provided the IPPC Secretariat as they are considered useful for other organizations too.

The IPPC Guides and training materials developed under the auspices of the IPPC Secretariat are available here.

How Contributed resources are made available on the IPP?

The IPPC Implementation and Capacity Development Committee (IC) reviews the provided resources against established criteria. Suitable materials are made available on this page.

How do I submit phytosanitary technical resources?

  There are two options:
Option 1: by email
You can submit your phytosanitary technical resources anytime to the IPPC Secretariat ( [email protected] ) by attaching the form. Please write "Contributed resources" in the subject line of your email.

If the resources are provided by files (pdf, power point presentations. etc) instead of web links, please also fill out the FAO permission request form and send it back to us as FAO requests a non-exclusive license to publish the resources in the FAO Document Repository at: http://www.fao.org/documents on behalf of the IPPC Secretariat to be then made available on the IPP.

How submit resources online

  • If you don't have an IPP account:
      to create an account
  • When your account will be confirmed you will receive login details by email
  • Once logged in you can submit resources from the enabled button "+ Add new Contributed resource" below on this page.
  • If you have already an IPP account:
    1. Log in and click on the enabled button "Request access" below on this page.
    2. You will receive confirmation of access granted by email.
    3. Once logged in you can submit resources from the enabled button "+ Add new Contributed resource" below on this page.

Topic specific calls

The IPPC Secretariat periodically issues topic specific calls. Currently we are soliciting technical resources:

Update (2021-02-02) The following resources are added:

You can sort the resources by clicking "Title", "Resource provided by" or "Posted date".


Conclusions

Root tonics are fermented beverages, not bitters, that are consumed, prepared, and sold across Jamaica. The documentation of the oral histories of these tonics shows that there exists a wealth of traditional knowledge related to their use that conceptualizes and situates the functioning and well-being of the human body within the island's natural environment and history. This data contributes much-needed insights into the intricate and layered sociocultural meanings and origin of these beverages, information that has hereto remained undocumented in ethnobotany studies, which often tend to myopically focus on plant diversity and plant uses. Our study has revealed important new perspectives of root tonics beyond their aphrodisiac qualities, as food-medicines that have supported, and continue to support, the holistic health and mind-body equilibrium of Jamaica's Afro-descendant and wider population in the past and present. The strength-building qualities of these root tonics are embedded in a narrative of survival, resistance, and resilience that dates back to the history of Transatlantic slavery. Root tonics are thus rooted in tradition, and knowledge about these beverages has been passed along by African ancestors, Maroons, and others with close access to nature who searched, and continue to search, for plants that could transfer specific therapeutic qualities such as strength to the human body in times of need. Root tonics also embody a double symbolism of using elements of nature (the earth) to sustain sexual nature. The natural lifestyle that is at the core of the consumption of Jamaican root tonics is also at the heart of the Rastafari movement and religion, and it is therefore not surprising that Rastafari, who celebrate a return to the (cultural) roots of Jamaicans, are seen as the current knowledge holders. Future studies can examine archival ethnobotany records, to trace traditional knowledge about the use of individual plant species in root tonics over time, to learn about the health conditions these species were used for in the past, and to understand which cultural groups knew and used these plants. Untangling this complexity will help to better understand and promote Jamaica's rich biocultural heritage.

Currently, most root tonics are prepared at home and sold in the informal economy. Using the oral history data in our study as a guide, we identified key considerations, barriers, and action points for the development of a sustainable cottage industry for these traditional producers. We then designed a roadmap based on four steps: Growing production, growing alliances, transitioning into the formal economy, and safeguarding ecological sustainability. The main premise of this roadmap is that a cottage industry for Jamaican root tonics should put the concerns and benefits of small-scale, artisanal producers at the center, and recognize and honor their IPR.


Contributed Resources

Contributed resources are phytosanitary technical resources that were developed by National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs), Regional Plant Protection Organizations (RPPOs) and other organizations for their own use and kindly provided the IPPC Secretariat as they are considered useful for other organizations too.

The IPPC Guides and training materials developed under the auspices of the IPPC Secretariat are available here.

How Contributed resources are made available on the IPP?

The IPPC Implementation and Capacity Development Committee (IC) reviews the provided resources against established criteria. Suitable materials are made available on this page.

How do I submit phytosanitary technical resources?

  There are two options:
Option 1: by email
You can submit your phytosanitary technical resources anytime to the IPPC Secretariat ( [email protected] ) by attaching the form. Please write "Contributed resources" in the subject line of your email.

If the resources are provided by files (pdf, power point presentations. etc) instead of web links, please also fill out the FAO permission request form and send it back to us as FAO requests a non-exclusive license to publish the resources in the FAO Document Repository at: http://www.fao.org/documents on behalf of the IPPC Secretariat to be then made available on the IPP.

How submit resources online

  • If you don't have an IPP account:
      to create an account
  • When your account will be confirmed you will receive login details by email
  • Once logged in you can submit resources from the enabled button "+ Add new Contributed resource" below on this page.
  • If you have already an IPP account:
    1. Log in and click on the enabled button "Request access" below on this page.
    2. You will receive confirmation of access granted by email.
    3. Once logged in you can submit resources from the enabled button "+ Add new Contributed resource" below on this page.

Topic specific calls

The IPPC Secretariat periodically issues topic specific calls. Currently we are soliciting technical resources:

Update (2021-02-02) The following resources are added:

You can sort the resources by clicking "Title", "Resource provided by" or "Posted date".


Jamaican/Caribbean insect, plant identification keys/field guides - Biology

National Moth Week 2020 photos of insects and people.

Photos of insects and people from the 2013 gathering in Arizona, July 25-28

Photo#133806
Copyright © 2007 Alan Chin-Lee


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