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Are there toxins that cause heart attack and/or stroke in multiple individuals in short time frames?

Are there toxins that cause heart attack and/or stroke in multiple individuals in short time frames?


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Are there any known environmental factors that would cause more than one person to have a heart attack or stroke within a short period of time (e.g. 2-3 months) of one another? I'm particularly looking for causes that are likely to be found around the home (e.g., chronic low-dose CO poisoning), as opposed to industrial sites.


Secondhand Smoke (SHS) Facts

Secondhand smoke is the combination of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette and the smoke breathed out by smokers. Secondhand smoke contains more than 7,000 chemicals, of which hundreds are toxic and about 70 can cause cancer. 1,2,3,4

There is no risk-free level of secondhand smoke exposure even brief exposure can be harmful to health. 1,2,6 Comprehensive smokefree policies have been successful in protecting those who do not smoke, and are the only way to fully protect their health. 1,2,7

In adults who have never smoked, secondhand smoke can cause:

  • Heart disease
    • For adults who do not smoke, breathing secondhand smoke has immediate harmful effects on the heart and blood vessels. 1,4,6
    • Secondhand smoke causes nearly 34,000 premature deaths from heart disease each year in the United States among adults who do not smoke. 1
    • People who do not smoke, but are exposed to secondhand smoke at home or at work, experience a 25-30% increase in their risk of developing heart disease. 1
    • Secondhand smoke exposure causes more than 7,300 deaths from lung cancer among people who do not smoke. 1
      • Each year, more than 8,000 deaths from stroke can be attributed to secondhand smoke. 1

      Chronic diseases such as these are the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. They may also increase risk with respect to other illnesses. 1

      Health Effects in Infants and Children

      • Smoking during pregnancy results in more than 1,000 infant deaths annually. 1
        • Adults exposed to secondhand smoke during pregnancy are more likely to have newborns with lower birth weight, increasing the risk of health complications. 2
          • Chemicals in secondhand smoke appear to affect the brain in ways that interfere with its regulation of infants&rsquo breathing. 2,3
          • Infants who die from SIDS have higher concentrations of nicotine in their lungs and higher levels of cotinine than infants who die from other causes. 2,3
          • Exposure to secondhand smoke causes multiple health problems in infants and young children, including: 1,2,3
            • Ear infections
            • Respiratory symptoms (coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath)
            • Acute lower respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and pneumonia
            • Measurements of blood serum cotinine (as a measure of secondhand exposure among people who do not smoke) show that exposure to secondhand smoke steadily decreased in the United States between 1988-2014. 5
              • During 1988&ndash1991, almost 90 of every 100 (87.9%) people who did not smoke had measurable levels of cotinine. 5
              • During 2007&ndash2008, about 40 of every 100 (40.1%) people who did not smoke had measurable levels of cotinine. 5
              • During 2011&ndash2014, about 25 of every 100 (25.2%) people who did not smoke had measurable levels of cotinine. 5
              • Decreasing cigarette smoking rates
              • Increased awareness of the risks for secondhand smoke exposure
              • The adoption of comprehensive smoke-free laws prohibiting smoking in workplaces and public places in many states and localities
              • During 2013-2014, 58 million people who do not smoke were exposed to secondhand smoke. 5

              Additional progress is being made as states and communities adopt comprehensive smokefree laws, but disparities in coverage of smokefree laws persists. Those of lower socioeconomic status and lower educational attainment remain less likely to be covered by smokefree laws in worksites, restaurants, and bars. 5 Additionally, private settings such as homes and vehicles remain major sources of exposure for some populations, including youth.

              Comprehensive smokefree laws for all workplaces and public places &ndash without exception &ndash and smokefree rules for homes and vehicles can fully protect nonsmokers. These policies also can help prevent youth initiation and help those who currently smoke to quit. 3,4,5

              Although the number of people who do not smoke but are exposed to secondhand smoke has declined, disparities in secondhand smoke exposure persist. 5

              Non-Hispanic Black Americans people who live below the federal poverty level those who work in traditionally &ldquoblue collar&rdquo industries, service occupations, or construction people who live in multi-unit housing and children 3-11 years of age are more likely than other groups to be exposed to secondhand smoke. 5

              • Reasons for these disparities may include
              • Variations in smoking prevalence
              • Variations in smokefree policy coverage
              • Tobacco industry misinformation. According to a legal judgment, tobacco companies &ldquodeliberately deceived the American public about the health effects of secondhand smoke.&rdquo 9
              • Prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure among non-Hispanic Black people who do not smoke (50.3%) is much higher compared with non-Hispanic white people (21.4%) and Americans of Mexican descent (20.0%). 5
              • While secondhand smoke exposure among US youths in homes and vehicles significantly declined during 2011 through 2018, secondhand smoke exposure in homes among non-Hispanic black students did not change. 10
              • Non-Hispanic Black middle and high school students have a higher prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure in the home (28.4%) and in vehicles (26.4%) than Hispanic (17.6%) and non-Hispanic other (14.0%) students. 10
              • Between 2013-2014, prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure was higher among those who lived below the federal poverty level (47.9 %) than those who lived at or above the poverty level (21.2%).
              • For adults who do not smoke, the workplace remains the source of most secondhand smoke exposure. 5
              • Workers who do not smoke and live in states or municipalities without comprehensive smokefree policies were most likely to be frequently exposed to secondhand smoke. 12
              • Workers in certain industries reported more frequent secondhand smoke exposure, especially those in outdoor work environments or other work settings unlikely to be covered by workplace smokefree protections. 12
                • According to a survey, those working in industrial machinery or equipment repair had 65.1% prevalence of workplace secondhand smoke exposure, the highest out of all industries. 12
                • The industry with the highest number of workers who do not smoke but reported exposure was construction, with 2.9 million exposed. 12
                • Those who do not smoke and work in private worksites, restaurants, or bars in states with comprehensive workplace smokefree policies had significantly lower prevalence (8.6%) of frequent exposure to secondhand smoke than those in the same industry in states without comprehensive smokefree protections (12.2%). 12
                • Children still have a higher prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure than adults, and most are exposed in the home. 5 In 2019, an estimated 6.7 million (25.3%) of middle and high school students reported secondhand smoke exposure in the home.
                • 73% of children who lived with a person who smoked inside the home were exposed to secondhand smoke during 2013-2014, compared with those who did not (22.3%). 5
                • Children who live in multi-unit housing are more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke.
                  • An estimated 80 million people&mdashor 25% of the population&mdashin the United States live in multi-unit housing. 13
                  • Among children who live in homes in which no one smokes indoors, those children living in multi-unit housing such as apartments or condos have 45% higher cotinine levels than children living in single-family homes. 11
                  • Even when no one in the unit smokes, secondhand smoke can filter into other units via hallways, stairwells, and ventilation systems. 11
                  • Secondhand smoke exposure during 2013-2014 was higher among people who rented (38.6% their homes than those who owned their homes (19.2%). 5

                  Studies show that adoption of comprehensive smokefree policies:

                  • Reduces secondhand smoke exposure
                  • Reduces smoking and encourages people who smoke to quit
                  • Helps prevent smoking initiation
                  • Does not negatively impact the hospitality industry
                  • Results in high levels of compliance in the state or community in which the policies are applied

                  Find discussions of these benefits in greater depth on the following fact sheets:


                  References

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                  Motzer RJ, Hutson TE, Tomczak P, Michaelson MD, Bukowski RM, Rixe O, Oudard S, Negrier S, Szczylik C, Kim ST, Chen I, Bycott PW, Baum CM, Figlin RA

                  Richards CJ, Je Y, Schutz FA, Heng DY, Dallabrida SM, Moslehi JJ, Choueiri TK

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                  Telli ML, Witteles RM, Fisher GA, Srinivas S

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                  Moore MJ, Goldstein D, Hamm J, Figer A, Hecht JR, Gallinger S, Au HJ, Murawa P, Walde D, Wolff RA, Campos D, Lim R, Ding K, Clark G, Voskoglou-Nomikos T, Ptasynski M, Parulekar W

                  Biganzoli L, Cufer T, Bruning P, Coleman RE, Duchateau L, Rapoport B, Nooij M, Delhaye F, Miles D, Sulkes A, Hamilton A, Piccart M

                  Martin M, Pienkowski T, Mackey J, Pawlicki M, Guastalla JP, Weaver C, Tomiak E, Al-Tweigeri T, Chap L, Juhos E, Guevin R, Howell A, Fornander T, Hainsworth J, Coleman R, Vinholes J, Modiano M, Pinter T, Tang SC, Colwell B, Prady C, Provencher L, Walde D, Rodriguez-Lescure A, Hugh J, Loret C, Rupin M, Blitz S, Jacobs P, Murawsky M, Riva A, Vogel C

                  Marty M, Cognetti F, Maraninchi D, Snyder R, Mauriac L, Tubiana-Hulin M, Chan S, Grimes D, Antón A, Lluch A, Kennedy J, O’Byrne K, Conte P, Green M, Ward C, Mayne K, Extra JM

                  Palumbo A, Rajkumar SV, Dimopoulos MA, Richardson PG, San Miguel J, Barlogie B, Harousseau J, Zonder JA, Cavo M, Zangari M, Attal M, Belch A, Knop S, Joshua D, Sezer O, Ludwig H, Vesole D, Bladé J, Kyle R, Westin J, Weber D, Bringhen S, Niesvizky R, Waage A, von Lilienfeld-Toal M, Lonial S, Morgan GJ, Orlowski RZ, Shimizu K, Anderson KC, Boccadoro M, Durie BG, Sonneveld P, Hussein MA

                  Gullestad L, Ueland T, Fjeld JG, Holt E, Gundersen T, Breivik K, Følling M, Hodt A, Skårdal R, Kjekshus J, Andreassen A, Kjekshus E, Wergeland R, Yndestad A, Frøland SS, Semb AG, Aukrust P

                  Carver JR, Nasta S, Chong EA, Stonecypher M, Wheeler JE, Ahmadi T, Schuster SJ

                  Thavendiranathan P, Verhaert D, Kendra KL, Raman SV

                  Yao H, He XH, Bruce IC, Xia Q

                  Deyton LR, Walker RE, Kovacs JA, Herpin B, Parker M, Masur H, Fauci AS, Lane HC

                  Zimmerman S, Adkins D, Graham M, Petruska P, Bowers C, Vrahnos D, Spitzer G

                  Tortorella G, Piccin A, Tieghi A, Marcheselli L, Steurer M, Gastl G, Codeluppi K, Fama A, Santoro U, Birtolo C, Gugliotta G, Cortelazzo S, Gugliotta L

                  Engel PJ, Johnson H, Baughman RP, Richards AI

                  Silverstein MN, Petitt RM, Solberg LA, Fleming JS, Knight RC, Schacter LP

                  Rogers KC, Oliphant CS, Finks SW

                  Packer M, Carver JR, Rodeheffer RJ, Ivanhoe RJ, DiBianco R, Zeldis SM, Hendrix GH, Bommer WJ, Elkayam U, Kukin ML, Mallis GI, Sollano JA, Shannon J, Tandon PK, DeMets DL

                  Ali WM, Al Habib KF, Al-Motarreb A, Singh R, Hersi A, Al Faleh H, Asaad N, Al Saif S, Almahmeed W, Sulaiman K, Amin H, Al-Lawati J, Al Bustani N, Al-Sagheer NQ, Al-Qahtani A, Al Suwaidi J

                  Smith HJ, Roche AH, Jausch MF, Herdson PB

                  Westover AN, Nakonezny PA, Haley RW

                  Wijetunga M, Seto T, Lindsay J, Schatz I

                  Yeo KK, Wijetunga M, Ito H, Efird JT, Tay K, Seto TB, Alimineti K, Kimata C, Schatz IJ

                  Cooper WO, Habel LA, Sox CM, Chan KA, Arbogast PG, Cheetham TC, Murray KT, Quinn VP, Stein CM, Callahan ST, Fireman BH, Fish FA, Kirshner HS, O’Duffy A, Connell FA, Ray WA

                  Habel LA, Cooper WO, Sox CM, Chan KA, Fireman BH, Arbogast PG, Cheetham TC, Quinn VP, Dublin S, Boudreau DM, Andrade SE, Pawloski PA, Raebel MA, Smith DH, Achacoso N, Uratsu C, Go AS, Sidney S, Nguyen-Huynh MN, Ray WA, Selby JV

                  Apfelbaum JD, Caravati EM, Kerns WP, Bossart PJ, Larsen G

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                  Hennessy S, Bilker WB, Knauss JS, Margolis DJ, Kimmel SE, Reynolds RF, Glasser DB, Morrison MF, Strom BL

                  Merrill DB, Dec GW, Goff DC

                  Haas SJ, Hill R, Krum H, Liew D, Tonkin A, Demos L, Stephan K, McNeil J

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                  Giardina EG, Johnson LL, Vita J, Bigger JT, Brem RF

                  Veith RC, Raskind MA, Caldwell JH, Barnes RF, Gumbrecht G, Ritchie JL

                  Glassman AH, Johnson LL, Giardina EG, Walsh BT, Roose SP, Cooper TB, Bigger JT

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                  Strik JJ, Honig A, Lousberg R, Cheriex EC, Van Praag HM

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                  Glassman AH, O’Connor CM, Califf RM, Swedberg K, Schwartz P, Bigger JT, Krishnan KR, van Zyl LT, Swenson JR, Finkel MS, Landau C, Shapiro PA, Pepine CJ, Mardekian J, Harrison WM, Barton D, Mclvor M

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                  Poisoning

                  If you or someone you know has swallowed or breathed in a poison, and you or they have serious signs or symptoms (nausea, vomiting, pain, trouble breathing, seizure, confusion, or abnormal skin color), you must either call an ambulance for transport to a hospital emergency department or call a poison control center for guidance. The National Poison Control Center phone number in the U.S. is 1-800-222-1222.

                  If the person has no symptoms but has taken a potentially dangerous poison, you should also call a poison control center or go to the nearest emergency department for an evaluation.

                  Poison is anything that kills or injures through its chemical actions. Most poisons are swallowed (ingested). The word poison comes from the Latin word - potare - meaning to drink. But poisons can also enter the body in other ways:

                  • By breathing
                  • Through the skin
                  • By IV injection
                  • From exposure to radiation
                  • Venom from a snake bite or insect bite

                  What Are Types of Poisoning?

                  Poisons include highly toxic chemicals not meant for human ingestion or contact, such as cyanide, paint thinners, or household cleaning products.

                  Many poisons, however, are substances meant for humans to eat, including foods and medicines.

                  Foods

                  • Some mushrooms are poisonous
                  • Drinking water contaminated by agricultural or industrial chemicals
                  • Food that has not been properly prepared or handled

                  Drugs

                  Drugs that are helpful in therapeutic doses may be deadly when taken in excess.

                  • Beta blockers: Beta blockers are a class of drugs used to treat heart conditions (for example, angina, abnormal heart rhythms) and other conditions, (for example, high blood pressure, migraine headache prevention, social phobia, and certain types of tremors). In excess, they can cause difficulty breathing, coma, and heart failure.
                  • Warfarin (Coumadin): Coumadin is a blood thinner used to prevent blood clots. It is the active ingredient in many rat poisons and may cause heavy bleeding and death if too much is taken.
                  • Vitamins:Vitamins, especially A and D, if taken in large amounts can cause liver problems and death.

                  QUESTION

                  What Are the Symptoms of Poisoning?

                  Signs and symptoms of poisoning are so wide and variable that there is no easy way to classify them.

                  • Some poisons enlarge the pupils, while others shrink them.
                  • Some result in excessive drooling, while others dry the mouth and skin.
                  • Some speed the heart, while others slow the heart.
                  • Some increase the breathing rate, while others slow it.
                  • Some cause pain, while others are painless.
                  • Some cause hyperactivity, while others cause drowsiness. Confusion is often seen with these symptoms.

                  When the cause of the poisoning is unknown

                  A big part of figuring out what type of poisoning has occurred is connecting the signs and symptoms to each other, and to additional available information.

                  • Two different poisons, for example, may make the heart beat quickly. However, only one of them may cause the skin and mouth to be very dry. This simple distinction may help narrow the possibilities.
                  • If more than one person has the same signs and symptoms, and they have a common exposure source, such as contaminated food, water, or workplace environment, then poisoning would be suspected.
                  • When two or more poisons act together, they may cause signs and symptoms not typical of any single poison.

                  Toxidromes

                  Certain poisons cause what toxicologists call toxidromes - a contraction of the words toxic and syndrome. Toxidromes consist of groups of signs and symptoms found together with a given type of poisoning.

                  • For example: Jimson weed, a plant smoked or ingested for its hallucinogenic properties, produces the anticholinergic toxidrome: Rapid heart rate, large pupils, dry hot skin, retention of urine, mental confusion, hallucinations, and coma.
                  • Most poisons either have no associated toxidrome or have only some of the expected features of the toxidrome.

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                  Delayed Onset of Poisoning Symptoms

                  A person can be poisoned and not show symptoms for hours, days, or months. Cases of poisoning with a prolonged onset of symptoms are particularly dangerous because there may be a dangerous delay in obtaining medical attention.

                    (Tylenol) is considered a safe drug, but is toxic to the liver when taken in large quantities. Because it acts so slowly, 7 to 12 hours may pass before the first symptoms begin (no appetite when normally hungry, nausea, and vomiting).
                • The classic example of a very slow poison is lead. Before 1970, most paints contained lead. Young children would eat paint chips and, after several months, develop abnormalities of the nervous system.
                • When the illness may be poisoning - or may not be poisoning

                  Some signs and symptoms of poisoning can imitate signs and symptoms of common illnesses.

                  • For example, nausea and vomiting are a sign (vomiting) and symptom (nausea) of poisoning. However, nausea and vomiting can also be found in many illnesses that have nothing to do with poisoning. Examples include:
                      , ,
                  • stomach ulcers,
                  • gallbladder problems, , ,
                  • head injuries, and
                  • many others.
                  • What Should You Do if You Suspect Poisoning?

                    Call the U.S. National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 if you have questions about possible poisoning. You can also go directly to your hospital's emergency department.

                    • Don't assume over-the-counter medications are safe even if taken in excess. Call the poison control center for advice.
                    • With many pills, it may take several hours or longer for symptoms to develop. Do not wait for symptoms to develop, call the poison control center for advice.

                    Go to your hospital's emergency department if any of the following occurs:

                    • If someone looks ill after a poisoning or possible poisoning.
                    • An infant or toddler who may have ingested a poison, even if the child looks and feels fine.
                    • Anyone who has taken something in an attempt to harm himself or herself, even if the substance used is not known to be harmful.
                    • When take the person to the hospital's emergency department, take all the medicine bottles, containers (household cleaners, paint cans, vitamin bottles), or samples of the substance (such as a plant leaf).

                    How Is Poisoning Diagnosed?

                    A combination of history, physical examination, and laboratory studies will help reveal the cause of most poisonings. Frequently, treatment must begin before all information is available.

                    History: As a family member or friend of a poisoned person, you can greatly assist the doctor and provide valuable clues by telling the doctor about these details:

                    • Everything the person ate or drank recently
                    • Names of all prescription and over-the-counter medications the person is taking
                    • Exposure to chemicals at home or at work
                    • Whether others in the family or at work have been similarly ill or exposed
                    • Whether the person has any psychiatric history to suggest an intentional ingestion (suicide attempt)

                    Testing: Many poisons can be detected in the blood or urine. However, a physician cannot order "every test in the book" when the diagnosis is unclear. The tests ordered will be based on information revealed in the history and physical exam.

                    • A toxicology screen or "tox" screen looks for common drugs of abuse. Most toxicology screens will detect:
                      • acetaminophen, ,
                      • marijuana,
                      • opioids (heroin, codeine),
                      • benzodiazepines (diazepam [Valium], chlordiazepoxide [Librium]),
                      • amphetamines (uppers), , and .

                      SLIDESHOW

                      What Is the Treatment for Poisoning?

                      Poisoning can occur from a variety of factors like medications, illicit drugs, foods, and attempts to harm ones life. Poisoning is a medical emergency and cannot be treated at home. If think you or someone you know shows the symptoms of poisoning as described previously, seek medical care immediately.

                      Poisoning Self-Care at Home

                      If you or someone you know has swallowed or breathed a poison and you or they have signs or symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, pain, trouble breathing, seizure, confusion, or abnormal skin color, you must call either an ambulance or the U.S. National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 for guidance. This number is routed to the poison control center that serves your area.

                      • Post the telephone number (along with police, fire, and 911 or equivalent) near your home phones.
                      • Do not induce vomiting or give syrup of Ipecac.
                        • Ipecac was previously used to induce vomiting in poisoned patients where there was a chance to get the toxin out of the body. Several advisory bodies such as the American Association of Poison Control Centers and the American Academy of Pediatrics have recommended that Ipecac NOT be used and that it should not even be kept in the household. For more information on this subject go to: http://www.poison.org/prepared/ipecac.asp

                        What Is the Medical Treatment Poisoning?

                        Elimination: Get rid of the unabsorbed poison before it can do any harm.

                        • If the person is unconscious, the doctor will put a flexible, soft, plastic tube into the windpipe to protect the person from suffocating in his or her own vomit and to provide artificial breathing (intubation).
                        • Once the poison has moved past the stomach, other methods are needed. acts as a "super" absorber of many poisons. Once the poison is stuck to the charcoal in the intestine, the poison cannot get absorbed into the bloodstream. Activated charcoal has no taste, but the gritty texture sometimes causes the person to vomit. To be effective, activated charcoal needs to be given as soon as possible after the poisoning. It does not work with alcohol, caustics, lithium (Lithobid), or petroleum products.
                        • Whole bowel irrigation requires drinking a large quantity of a fluid called Golytely. This flushes the entire gastrointestinal tract before the poison gets absorbed.

                        Antidotes: Some poisons have specific antidotes. Antidotes either prevent the poison from working or reverse the effects of the poison.

                          is an antidote for certain nerve gases and insecticides. During Operation Desert Storm, all military personnel were issued atropine injectors when it was feared that the enemy would use nerve gas.
                      • A common antidote is N-acetylcysteine (Mucomyst), which is used to neutralize acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdoses. Acetaminophen, in normal doses, is one of the safest medications known, but after a massive overdose, the liver is damaged, and hepatitis and liver failure develop. Mucomyst works as an antidote by bolstering the body's natural detoxification abilities when they are overwhelmed.
                        • It may also be possible to reverse the harmful effect of a drug even if no antidote exists.
                          • If a person with diabetes takes too much insulin, a dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) will cause weakness, unconsciousness, and eventually death. Sugar given by mouth or IV is an effective treatment until the insulin wears off.
                          • When the poison is a heavy metal, such as lead, special medicines (chelators) bind the poison in the bloodstream and cause it to be eliminated in the urine.
                          • Another "binder" is sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate), which can absorb potassium and other electrolytes from the bloodstream.
                          • If a person has been bitten by a poisonous snake, and antivenin may be used to counteract the toxins.

                          General supportive measures: When there are no specific treatments, the physician will treat signs and symptoms as needed.

                          • If the person is agitated or hallucinating, a sedative can be given to calm the person until the drug wears off.
                          • A ventilator can be used to breathe for anyone who has stopped breathing from a poisoning.
                          • Antiseizure medicines can be used to treat or prevent seizures.

                          What Is the Prognosis for Poisoning?

                          The key to a good outcome is rapid recognition that a poisoning has occurred and rapid transport to a qualified medical facility when indicated.


                          The COVID-19 spike protein may be a potentially unsafe toxic endothelial pathogen

                          We raise the specter of harm from the vaccines in children and adolescents. We are scientists and prognosticators who believe in the science of pre-existing vaccines that have undergone rigorous pretesting prior to human exposure. We have very serious concerns about these COVID-19 vaccines especially given escalating adverse effects being reported in the CDC’s VAERS vaccine adverse event database, the European vaccine adverse event reporting database, and the evidence in the general media. The reports of several thousand deaths post vaccine that appear temporally linked to the vaccines are very alarming. We are raising the alarm and call for urgent examination.

                          We also raise these risk concerns for pregnant women who must only be administered safe drugs or vaccines. We never ever administer an untested biological substance to a pregnant woman. There could be no exception to this and we are very concerned by the administration of these vaccines to pregnant women. They are very concerning risks to these COVID-19 vaccines and we are referring to not just immediate risks, but the long-term ones that would emerge in years to come e.g. autoimmune disorders etc. We just do not have the required long-term safety data for the vaccines and this worries us immensely. The reality is that we strongly support vaccines that are ‘properly’ developed, and we are not anti-vaxxers.

                          We have always argued for a ‘focused’ approach that is stratified based on age-risk targeting, recognizing that COVID-19 operates based on age and risk. A ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach is suboptimal and does not work. We continue to fail to strongly protect the high-risk among us (elderly, elderly with co-morbid conditions etc.) while restricting the ‘well’ and ‘low-risk’ healthy persons in our populations with policies that have had devastating societal consequences beyond what could have been caused by the pathogen on its own. Outcomes once infected, has less to do with the virus itself and more to do with one’s baseline risk. Age, obesity, diabetes etc. are the key risk factors. Obesity particularly emerged as a super loaded factor.

                          We have harmed our children for decades to come by these unscientific, illogical, irrational, ridiculous, and absurd school closures policies and it is the very poor children (minority, African-American, Latino, South Asian/South East Asian) who have fared worst of all. Working women have fared worst of all also, especially minority women. They were least able to afford the lockdowns and school closures that the ‘lap-top’ class could. Shame on all of our governments and their unsound, academically sloppy so called ‘medical advisors’ who exhibited a depth of cognitive dissonance to any science or evidence that misaligned with their specious edicts and policies. Shame on our government agencies such as the CDC, FDA, and NIH who have been wrong on virtually everything COVID-19 related. Shame on Dr. Anthony Fauci for his nonsensical, often inaccurate statements and flip-flops that left the nation so very confused. They have all failed!

                          Before focusing on the vaccine safety concerns, we call into question the true effectiveness of the vaccines and the reported estimates of effect. In the Phase I/II trial analyses, the efficiency of the mRNA vaccines were reported as 95%. The implications were derived from a Relative Risk Reduction (RRR). If the real numbers are used to determine the Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR), then the results are a paltry 0.8%. Had the ARR been published, then a different picture would have emerged as to the effectiveness, and why one would accept a vaccine with such low indications of benefit, and while as we are now learning, potential harms?

                          This was terribly deceitful by the CDC, NIH, Dr. Anthony Fauci etc. and pharmaceuticals, as well as all who touted the RRR of 95% knowing it is not reflective of the effectiveness in a meaningful manner, and which could optimally inform the public. It is the ARR that is meaningful for the public for their decision-making.

                          Shame also on all of the medical establishment cartel, the academic scientists, and regulators such as the FDA and agencies like the NIH who have prevented the use of early treatment for high-risk patients. They know these drugs work yet have let hundreds of thousands (at least 80%) die needlessly. People have died being denied access to safe, effective, cheap, and available therapeutics. We knew that if you start treatment early, you could save the patient. You could stop hospitalization and death by as much as an 85% reduction in risk. But the medical community settled into a group think of therapeutic nihilism. Doctors should have stood up and be brave, and exercised their clinical discretion and judgement. They should have used an empirical approach as they usually do. They should have trusted their clinical judgement and treat their patients who were scared and needed help, not just to send them home to ‘wait-and-see’ and ‘worsen in place’, and only come see me again (or go to the emergency room) when you cannot breathe properly or have seizures etc. It is often too late by then, and way more complex to treat. This was a massive blunder and will go down as one of the greatest public health disasters in history, along with the catastrophic failures of lockdowns and school closures and mask mandates, and with the potentially unsafe vaccines we will now discuss.

                          Now to the vaccine safety concerns. SARS-CoV-2 virus has a glycosylated spike protein (spicule) that sits on the ball of the virus and it is this protein that the virus uses to bind to the ACE 2 receptor on the surface of our respiratory epithelial cells or similar cells. This docking or binding that enlists the help of receptor binding domains and cleavage serine protease enzymes (and a furin cleavage site) allows for the virus to fuse its outer membrane with the host cell’s outer membrane, then gaining entry of the virus’s mRNA genetic material into the cells’ interior. From there, the mRNA uses the host cells’ metabolic machinery e.g. ribosomes etc. to produce a multitude of the spike proteins. As part of building an immune response to the virus, we are injecting the mRNA code to build the spike protein (mRNA delivery platform) or the DNA code also to build the spike protein (adenovirus vector delivery platform). This is the core theory behind the COVID-19 vaccines and how immunity will be developed (development of neutralizing antibodies).

                          However, we have learnt that COVID-19 is as much a vascular illness as it is a respiratory illness and we are seeing that many of the catastrophic symptoms have one thing in common, this being impairment and damage to blood circulation. Researchers discovered that the SARS-CoV-2 virus infects the endothelial cells that line the inside of blood vessels. “The concept that’s emerging is that this is not a respiratory illness alone, this is a respiratory illness to start with, but it is actually a vascular illness that kills people through its involvement of the vasculature”. It has been shown that SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect engineered human blood vessel organoids in vitro (in the laboratory).

                          Moreover, we are now witnessing thousands of cases of adverse effects e.g. bleeding disorders, blood clotting, and deaths, that are occurring immediately after vaccination and this close temporal relationship has led us to believe that the vaccine’s content is precipitating this. The adverse effects are being logged into the CDC’s VAERS database as well as the European adverse event database, as mentioned, and we have learnt that the reporting which is voluntary, captures roughly 1% of the events, at least in the VAERS database. This elevated under-reporting gives much concern that we are still not getting the true picture of morbidity and mortality due to the vaccines.

                          With this knowledge at hand and known widely via the scientific literature, we are calling for a pause at least in the administration of these vaccines until the safety issues are clarified. In this regard and especially concerning the children and young adults, we are calling for a moratorium against vaccinating them currently. There is no safety data nor evidence of support in the need to vaccinate children. Our main concern remains that the safety analysis for these vaccines have not been done and the required time to follow-up for this vaccine to ascertain its safety was limited to a median of 2 months in the initial trials. This is public knowledge.

                          The emerging data from a recent Norwegian report concluded that “the Pfizer-BioNTech covid-19 vaccine is “likely” to have been responsible for at least 10 deaths of frail elderly people in nursing homes in Norway”. This reported evidence caused us grave concern on the functionality of the vaccine. Similarly, Shimazawa has reported on the potential adverse events in Japanese women who received COVID-19 vaccine ‘tozinameran’ (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech). “Reports of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) following the administration of coronavirus vaccines have raised concerns regarding their safety…in Japan, 10 fatal cases (five men and women) have been reported to date. Four of the five women died of ICH and the other died of aspiration pneumonia, whereas all five men died of causes other than stroke”.

                          In December 2020, Dr. J. Patrick Whelan, a pediatric rheumatologist, warned the FDA that mRNA vaccines could cause microvascular injury to the brain, heart, liver and kidneys in ways NOT assessed in safety trials. Whelan stated: “Is it possible the spike protein itself causes the tissue damage associated with Covid-19? Nuovo et al (in press) have shown that in 13/13 brains from patients with fatal COVID-19, pseudovirions (spike, envelope, and membrane proteins) without viral RNA are present in the endothelia of cerebral micro-vessels.

                          Furthermore, tail vein injection of the full length S1 spike subunit in mice led to neurologic signs (increased thirst, stressed behavior) not evident in those injected with the S2 subunit. The S1 subunit localizes to the endothelia of microvessels in the mouse brain and is a potent neurotoxin. So the spike S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 alone is capable of being endocytosed (engulfed) by ACE-2 positive endothelia in both human and mouse brain, with a concomitant pauci-cellular microencephalitis that may be the basis for the neurologic complications of COVID-19” Whelan further states “it appears that the viral spike protein that is the target of the major SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is also one of the key agents causing the damage to distant organs that may include the brain, heart, lung, and kidney”. If this is so, then we have to urgently assess the impact of these vaccines on the heart for this can be devastating if millions of vaccinated persons incur long-lasting permanent injury to their heart vasculature or brain. Whelan argues it would be terrible if we failed “to appreciate in the short-term an unintended effect of full-length spike protein-based vaccines on these other organs”.

                          Whelan further reports that “ACE-2 receptor expression is highest in the microvasculature of the brain and subcutaneous fat, and to a lesser degree in the liver, kidney, and heart. They have further demonstrated that the coronavirus replicates almost exclusively in the septal capillary endothelial cells of the lungs and the nasopharynx, and that viral lysis and immune destruction of those cells releases viral capsid proteins (or pseudo-virions) that travel through the circulation and bind to ACE- 2 receptors in these other parts of the body leading to mannan-binding lectin complement pathway activation that not only damages the microvascular endothelium but also induces the production of many pro-inflammatory cytokines. Meinhardt et al. (Nature Neuroscience 2020, in press) show that the spike protein in brain endothelial cells is associated with formation of microthrombi (clots), and like Magro et al. do not find viral RNA in brain endothelium. In other words, viral proteins appear to cause tissue damage without actively replicating virus”.

                          This implies that the spike, on its very own, could act like a pathogen, causing devastating morbidity and fatality.

                          Suresh (2020) reported that “in addition to facilitating the membrane fusion and viral entry, the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein promotes cell growth signaling in human lung vascular cells, and patients who have died of COVID-19 have thickened pulmonary vascular walls, linking the spike protein to a fatal disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)”.

                          Suzuki (2021) examined SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein’s capacity to elicit cell signaling in human host cells and the implications for possible consequences of COVID-19 vaccines. They cautioned that while the aim is for the vaccines to para “introduce the spike protein into our body to elicit virus-neutralizing antibodies…we note that human host cells sensitively respond to the spike protein to elicit cell signaling…it is important to be aware that the spike protein produced by the new COVID-19 vaccines may also affect the host cells”.

                          Zhang (2020) examined SARS-CoV-2 binding to platelet ACE 2 and the role in enhancing thrombosis (blood clotting) in COVID-19. They used platelets from healthy volunteers, non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 patients, including wild-type and hACE2 transgenic mice. They reported a different function of SARS-CoV-2 “on platelet activation via binding of Spike to ACE 2”. They reported that SARS-CoV-2-induced platelet activation “may participate in thrombus formation and inflammatory responses in COVID-19 patients”.

                          Similarly, Lei et. al. (2021) also reported that pseudovirus contributed to inflammation and damage in both the arteries and lungs of mice exposed intratracheally. They “exposed healthy human endothelial cells to the same pseudovirus particles. Binding of these particles to endothelial ACE 2 receptors led to mitochondrial damage and fragmentation in those endothelial cells, leading to the characteristic pathological changes in the associated tissue”. This research raised the very serious prospect that the spike protein on its very own, without the rest of the virus and the genome, can cause endothelial damage “associated with COVID-19”.

                          With this type of adverse effects data and the research and warnings emerging from prominent scientists that SARS-CoV-2 has serious effects on the vasculature in multiple organs, including the brain vasculature, we strongly question why efforts by the vaccine developers and the CDC are focused around vaccinating the entire general US population, and particularly children and young people and those who had previously been infected with COVID-19.

                          Additionally, we feel that prior infected persons should not be vaccinated as there is no benefit and there is potential for serious harm. They are effectively immune and it is not a case of ‘would’ their immunity be lasting, when we have evidence that immunity from natural exposure to respiratory virus is so durable and long-lasting that it can last for 100 years. “These studies reveal that survivors of the 1918 influenza pandemic possess highly functional, virus-neutralizing antibodies to this uniquely virulent virus, and that humans can sustain circulating B memory cells to viruses for many decades after exposure – well into the tenth decade of life”.

                          Moreover, given the emerging adverse events and deaths from the vaccines that are being reported, we call urgently for an independent data safety monitoring board for the CDC’s VAERS system to urgently review the thousands of hospitalizations and deaths after COVID-19 vaccination to assess what ‘definitively’ caused the deaths. Yet we question whether such an independent safety monitoring board can remain independent in this era of politicized medicine.

                          Specifically, the biology seems to be coming together now and we are beginning to realize that the spike protein can potentially enter the plasma (blood stream) and systemically circulates and travels to the spleen, bone marrow, liver, adrenal glands, with elevated concentration in the ovaries, etc. It can potentially combine with the receptors on the platelets and the cells that line the blood vessels. It is showing the capacity to function as an endothelia pathogen. If this is proven true, this can cause blood platelets involved in clotting, to clump, which could create the blood clotting issues we have already seen associated with these vaccines. This could be catastrophic. It thus can potentially cause heart problems since it is part of the cardiovascular system. It appears that the spike protein is what is seemingly responsible for the pathology to the cardiovascular system.

                          “Science has found that the spike protein itself, when it gets into the bloodstream, causes the damage to the cardiovascular system almost entirely on its own. In fact, when the purified spike protein is injected into the blood of experimental animals, they get all kinds of damage to the cardiovascular system and it can cross the blood-brain barrier and cause damage in the brain”. The incoming data is showing us the unanticipated disastrous side effects of the vaccine itself.

                          Dr. Bryam Bridle out of the University of Guelph (Associate Professor of Viral Immunology) and who is a world-renowned virologist stated para “we made a big mistake, we did not realize it until now, we thought the spike protein was a great target antigen, but we never knew the spike protein itself was a potential toxin. By vaccinating people, we are inadvertently inoculating them with a toxin”.

                          The assumption is we are injecting the COVID-19 vaccine into the shoulder muscle (deltoid) and up until now, we felt the vaccine would behave like traditional vaccines and they do not go anywhere else but reside in the injection site e.g. stay in our shoulder muscle. Some of the protein will travel to the local lymph nodes to activate the immune system.

                          That was the assumption, but an important piece to the puzzle has recently emerged from a request to the Japanese regulatory agency (freedom of information request). Based on this confidential report (PHARMACOKINETICS: ORGAN DISTRIBUTION CONTINUED pages 6 & 7), we now have information of the biodistribution in animals that shows that the mRNA lipid nanoparticles (and as such one would extrapolate the mRNA and resulting spike protein) does not stay in the shoulder muscle and this finding is very potentially catastrophic. Bridle stated “so is it likely that the vaccine will remain in the shoulder muscle? The short answer: no way! And that is very worrying. The spike protein gets into the blood, circulates systemically in the blood for several days after vaccination. It accumulates as soon as it enters the blood and accumulates in a number of tissues such as the spleen, bone marrow, liver, adrenal glands, and what is particularly worrying to me, it accumulates in fairly high concentrations the ovaries.

                          The animal data clearly shows that it accumulates in various organs in very elevated concentrations. As mentioned, if the protein gets into the blood stream, it can potentially circulate in the blood systemically and potentially accumulate in tissues such as the spleen, bone marrow, liver, adrenal glands, and ovaries. What we speculated on is now borne out by this biodistribution data. The biodistribution data alarmingly shows that and suggests potentially then that the spike proteins in humans does not (and will not) stay in the injection site and can travel throughout the body. This is a major development. This requires urgent acute examination.

                          This additional piece to the puzzle as to explaining why we are seeing these problematic adverse events and deaths post vaccination, in terms of whether the spike protein moves from the injection site, is also backed up by a very recent publication that reported on 13 young healthcare workers (in CID/Ogata et al.) who received the Moderna vaccine. Researchers found detectable levels of SARS-CoV-2 protein in 11 of the 13 participants one day after first vaccination. “Spike protein was detectable in three of 13 participants an average of 15 days after the first injection… for one individual (Participant #8), spike was detected at day 29”, circulating in the blood. While nascent, this warrants urgent clarification.

                          To add to this, Dr. Hamid Merchant is also investigating the biodistribution to body tissues (for instance brain) beyond the injection site for a possible explanation of the rare fatal clots formed in the brain. “The biodistribution of ChaAdOx1 in mice confirmed the delivery of vaccine into the brain tissues. The vaccine may therefore spur the brain cells to produce CoViD spike proteins that may lead to an immune response against brain cells, or it may spark a spike protein-induced thrombosis. This may explain the peculiar incidences of the fatal CVST observed with viral vector-based CoViD-19 vaccines. It is anticipated that other vaccines using similar technology such as AstraZeneca/Oxford (Chimp adenoviral vector), J&J/Janssen (Human adenoviral vector 26), CanSinoBio (Human adenoviral vector 5), and Sputnik V (Human adenoviral vectors 26 and 5), may also lead to the same safety concerns”.

                          Avolio et al. (pre-print) reported that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein disrupts the cooperative function of human cardiac pericytes – endothelial cells through CD147 receptor-mediated signalling. They investigated the effects of the recombinant, stabilised S protein on primary human cardiac pericytes (PCs) signalling and function and found that the recombinant S protein alone elicits functional alterations in cardiac PCs. They concluded that the “S protein may elicit vascular cell dysfunction, potentially amplifying, or perpetuating, the damage caused by the whole coronavirus. This mechanism may have clinical and therapeutic implication”.

                          We were becoming aware some time now that the spike was a potential pathogen on its own and we were awaiting additional research data to inform us. We have presented the data above. Now we have clear cut evidence from the Japanese biodistribution regulatory data and the recent healthcare worker data that the vaccine gets into the blood circulation and travels systemically. Once in the blood stream, theoretically, the spike protein can bind to cells on our platelets and vascular endothelium that lines our blood vessels. Again, this can cause the platelets to clump and clot and this is why we have been seeing the many clotting disorders temporally associated with the vaccine administration. Again, we hypothesize this is why we have been seeing the bleeding disorders that have been reported and the heart problems. This means that the spike protein may even cross the blood brain barrier and cause neurological damage and clots in the brain. We are very concerned and this has to be acutely focused on urgently to ascertain the risk.

                          We are thus calling on regulatory agencies for safety information that could tell us:

                          i) “which cells are actually involved in the production of the spike protein, seeing that Pfizer’s own study submitted to the Japanese authorities shows the deposition of vaccine nanoparticles in various tissues and organs

                          ii) whether the spike protein is gaining access to the circulatory system and, if so, for how long

                          iii) whether the spike protein crosses the blood-brain barrier

                          iv) whether the spike protein interferes with semen production or ovulation,

                          v) whether the spike protein crosses the placenta and impacts a developing baby, or

                          vi) whether the spike protein is excreted in the milk of lactating mothers”.

                          “The same information is needed for the S1 subunit of the spike protein, which is the part that binds to ACE2 receptors and which has also been detected in the plasma of individuals following mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccination (Ogata et al., 2021)”.

                          We worry greatly for our children and are also calling on all regulators like the FDA to prevent the administration of these vaccines to our children. There is no reason to vaccinate them for this disease, none, zero! This is so serious an issue for if the spike protein can get into the blood and if proven true that it operates as we are fearing, and based on some preliminary reporting, then we could also have a national blood spike protein contamination catastrophe due to blood donations. We do not want transfer of the spike in blood related transfusions, and blood transfusion regulators and agencies such as the AABB in the US must respond to this potential risk.

                          What does all of this mean? What happens if these reports and the evidence we have presented prove true and the spike protein can and does behave pathogenically? Then we have made a catastrophic mistake with the spike protein as the key antigen for our immune system to target as it also may be functioning as a toxin and a pathogen, with a potential capability of a long-term disaster. The safety of the COVID-19 vaccines is in question.

                          In closing, we must not allow our children to be vaccinated given all we know about their statistical zero risk of becoming infected, spreading the virus, or becoming seriously ill post-infection. There is no benefit from these vaccines and as presented, the potential can be catastrophic to our children. We knew that our children did not have the biology to acquire infection as adults do due to the limited expression of the ACE 2 receptor in their nasal epithelium. We also knew they were likely heavily protected due to cross-protection from exposure to prior ‘common cold’ coronaviruses. We thus argue that by vaccinating children who come with a ‘protective factor’ in the first place, then we would be bypassing this natural protective barrier (low expression of or absent ACE 2 receptors in their nasal epithelium) and injecting the potentially pathogenic spike protein directly into them where it could cause serious harm that we are now witnessing in adults (due to the virus itself and the vaccine’s spike protein).

                          We know that the ACE 2 receptor is involved throughout the body in the renin-angiotensin (RAS) system of blood pressure and fluid balance and it is most certainly expressed at similar levels throughout the bodies of children. “ACE 2 is widely expressed, including, in the lungs, cardiovascular system, gut, kidneys, central nervous system, and adipose tissue”. While this must be verified, we must operate on this assumption that ACE 2 is expressed at similar levels in children systemically throughout the body as in adults. That it functions in a similar manner as in adults.

                          We must therefore conclude, and based on the preliminary information presented above, that by bypassing this natural protection due to limited ACE 2 expression nasally (Patel, Bunyavanich) and based on injecting into the deltoid muscle, we would be potentially setting up our children for catastrophe. If this spike protein is deleterious on the platelet and vascular endothelium (as we fear it could be based on emerging and still to be clarified, yet potentially credible indications), and if it can travel systemically as is being now reported, then we could doom our children to devastating effects.

                          What this means is that our children who have been largely spared from COVID-19 thus far in terms of infections and serious outcomes, may now become victim to severe outcomes in levels we have seen in adults across the last 15 months, due to a push to vaccinate them. How low is the risk? In Canada as an example, there have been approximately 260,000 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in persons under 19 years of age. Of these, 0.48% (1 in 208) were hospitalized, and 0.06% were admitted to ICU. Reporting indicates that 0.004% died (1 in 23,600). We know that seasonal influenza is associated with more severe illness than COVID-19 for our children. In the US, CDC reporting suggests that approximately 0.04% of persons up to 17 years of age have died from COVID-19.

                          Based on reporting, the Pfizer BioNTech’s study involved 2,260 children and adolescents who were 12-15 years of age. From these, 1,131 received the vaccine intervention. We argue that this is a very small number of adolescents and does not permit any optimal evaluation of rare but potentially serious side-effects, such as effects that may happen in only 1:5,000 adolescents. Moreover, the participants were followed-up for at most 2 months and this cannot allow the adequate duration of follow-up needed to assess safety of the vaccine. Thus, as we speak, we have no long-term safety data and do not know how this vaccine (or others) will behave long-term.

                          We say ‘NO’. No vaccine. There is no data to support this, yet only potential for downsides. In terms of our children, it is beyond establishing whether the risk is real. This demand to stop any vaccination of our children is based on no risk and thus no benefit. As stated earlier, we call for an immediate pause to the vaccinations and immediate assessment of the risks (across the board), so as to confirm whether or not the adverse effects and deaths being reported are directly linked to the vaccines. We have very strong temporal associations but we need this validated. This will greatly allay the concerns that have emerged in the public due to the troubling adverse effect and death reports.

                          As parents, whether American, Canadian, British, or any parent globally, we absolutely must question the fast-tracked and undiscerning, indiscriminate vaccination of our children and adolescents with a vaccine whereby the vitally important biodistribution, pharmacokinetic, and safety data on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, is absent. We do not have this information and it is imperative that this be collected and made known to all, given the preliminary information we have shared and the concerns that we have raised (e.g. the deposition of vaccine nanoparticles in various tissues and organs).

                          To close, the CDC, NIH, Dr. Anthony Fauci of the NIAID, Dr. Rochelle Walensky who heads the CDC, the vaccine manufacturers and all involved, have failed to prosecute their case on why our children are to be vaccinated with these vaccines given their near absent risk and the many safety concerns that have emerged. To move forward would be reckless and very dangerous to our children and we raise serious concerns about the safety of these vaccines. We have presented our case above and ask your consideration of the facts.

                          Note that views expressed in this opinion article are the writer’s personal views and not necessarily those of TrialSite, Inc.


                          Dosing

                          The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

                          • For coenzyme Q10 deficiency: 150-2400 mg per day.
                          • For a group of disorders that most often cause muscle weakness (mitochondrial myopathies): 150-160 mg per day, or 2 mg/kg per day. In some cases, doses may be gradually increased to 3000 mg per day.
                          • For heart failure and fluid build up in the body (congestive heart failure or CHF): 30 mg once daily, or up to 300 mg per day divided into two or three doses for up to 2 years. Also, 2 mg/kg daily for up to one year has been used.
                          • For nerve pain in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy): 400 mg per day for 12 weeks.
                          • For fibromyalgia: 300 mg daily for about 6 weeks or 200 mg twice daily for 3 months has been used. A combination of 200 mg of coenzyme Q10 (Bio-Quinon Q10, Pharma Nord) plus 200 mg of ginkgo (Bio-Biloba, Pharma Nord) per day for 12 weeks.
                          • For tissue damage caused when there is limited blood flow and then blood flow is restored (ischemia-reperfusion injury): 150-300 mg per day in up to three divided doses for 1-2 weeks before surgery.
                          • For preventing migraine: 100 mg three times per day, 150 mg once per day, or 100mg once per day for 3 months. A dose of 1-3 mg/kg per day for 3 months has also been used.
                          • For multiple sclerosis (MS): 500 mg twice daily for 3 months.
                          • For a group of inherited disorders that cause muscle weakness and muscle loss (muscular dystrophy): 100 mg per day for 3 months.
                          • For heart attack: 120 mg per day in two divided doses for up to one year. A combination of 100 mg of coenzyme Q10 (Bio-Quinon, Pharma Nord) and 100 mcg of selenium (Bio-Selenium, Pharma Nord) per day for up to one year has also been used.
                          • For Peyronie disease: 300 mg per day for 6 months
                          • For coenzyme Q10 deficiency: 60-250 mg per day in up to three divided doses.
                          • For preventing migraine: 1-3 mg/kg daily for 3 months has been used in patients aged 3-18 years.
                          • For a group of inherited disorders that cause muscle weakness and muscle loss (muscular dystrophy): 100 mg daily for 3 months in children aged 8-15 years.

                          Snider, I. P., Bazzarre, T. L., Murdoch, S. D., and Goldfarb, A. Effects of coenzyme athletic performance system as an ergogenic aid on endurance performance to exhaustion. Int J Sport Nutr 19922(3):272-286. View abstract.

                          Someya, S., Xu, J., Kondo, K., Ding, D., Salvi, R. J., Yamasoba, T., Rabinovitch, P. S., Weindruch, R., Leeuwenburgh, C., Tanokura, M., and Prolla, T. A. Age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice is mediated by Bak-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci U.S.A 11-17-2009106(46):19432-19437. View abstract.

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                          Chlorine Is A Basic Cause For Atherosclerosis And Heart Disease

                          Throughout the United States and Canada and other countries, chlorine is commonly used to kill disease-causing organisms in the water that come from rivers, lakes, and reservoirs which are used by millions of people everyday for drinking, bathing, showering and swimming. But what many people do not know is that this same chlorine they are exposing their body to is a very poisonous and deadly chemical that according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is essentially a pesticide. And since we are living organisms, chlorine is damaging and killing some part of our body each time we drink, shower, bathe, or swim. A University of Minnesota researcher, Dr. Robert Carlson, whose work is sponsored by the EPA, had this to say about chlorine, ‘ the chlorine problem is similar to that of air pollution:, and that “chlorine is the greatest crippler and killer of modern times!”

                          To understand how this “crippler and killer” came to be used in the drinking water, we need to go back in time to its first application.

                          The History of Chlorine Use for Disinfecting Water
                          Chlorine was first used to disinfect water 156 years ago in 1850 London, England. At this time, John Snow was trying to disinfect the Broad Street Pump water supply after an outbreak of cholera. Later, following a typhoid outbreak in 1897, Sims Woodhead used a chlorine bleach solution to disinfect potable water distribution mains at Maidstone, Kent in England. It wasn’t until the early 1900's that the wide and continuous use of chlorine greatly reduced the number of deaths from typhoid in Great Britain.

                          Use of Chlorine in the United States
                          Due to the success in England of reducing the death rate from infectious diseases such as typhoid, the use of chlorine in the United States began in 1908 in Jersey City, New Jersey. Soon after, cities and towns across the United States began to effectively treat their water supplies, reducing the danger from waterborne diseases such as dysentery, cholera, typhoid, and hepatitis A.

                          The First Use of Chlorine By the Military
                          Chlorine is a very toxic and poisonous chemical and has been used effectively in warfare as a deadly weapon. It was administered as a gas and given the code name bertholite, by the Germans who first used it against the French in 1915 during the second battle of Ypres in Belgium. Almost immediately, it was used on the eastern front against the Russians and continued to be used throughout the war resulting in thousands of casualties.

                          Other Uses of Chlorine
                          Other uses of this chemical include being used as a bleach in the paper and pulp industry and to bleach flour. It is also used to make other chemicals such as ethlene dichloride for the manufacture of polyvinly chloride which is used to make siding, flooring, tubing, coatings, piping, film, and other products. Another chemical made from chlorine is propylene oxide for manufacturing plastics called polyesters that are used to make boat and car bodies, bowling balls, carpets, and fabrics. Chlorine is also found in cosmetics, medicines, solvents, sealants, computer chips, paints, and other types of disinfectants.

                          Industrial Chlorine
                          The type of chlorine that is being referred to is industrial type not the natural mineral sodium chloride such as found in sea water. To produce industrial type chlorine natural sodium chloride is exposed to powerful electrical charges which separates the chlorine from the chloride producing a toxic and poisonous chlorine gas. It is this chlorine that has been used to treat the drinking water, to poison and kill soldiers during world wars I and II, and is used for the manufacture of many other chemicals to make other man-made products and chemicals,

                          What Research Has Been Done on Chlorine Before Adding it to the Water Supply?
                          Since chlorine is a toxic and poisonous substance, even being called a pesticide by the EPA, you would think that some sort of research would have been conducted before allowing people to drink, shower and bathe, and swim in it. However, it's interesting to note that in the July 28th 1951 Journal of the American Medical Association there was a question to the editor under the section where physicians could ask questions from a physician as to whether any studies had been done to ascertain any negative effects to drinking chlorinated water. The editor’s reply to the question was that he carefully examined all available material and found that there was never any research conducted on the effects of chlorine on the human body. However, the editor did say that there were cases of skin inflammation and many outbreaks of asthma traced to chlorine, but said these were due to allergies.

                          At the time of that statement in 1951 forty-three years had passed and people in the United States had been drinking and exposing their bodies to a chemical that was used as a weapon to kill people in two world wars. It kind of boggles the imagination to think that such a powerful and deadly chemical would be allowed to be added to water that people would use for drinking, showering, bathing, swimming in, and making baby formulas without first conducting a study to see if the long-term low dosage use of chlorine would cause any sort of negative effects. The interesting part is that to this date, 2006, or 55 years since 1951, the medical community nor the FDA still have not conducted official studies as to the effects on chlorine in or on the human body.

                          Available Research on the Effects of Chlorine on the Human Body
                          While there has been no official research done on the effects of chlorine on the human body by the medical community as a whole, or the FDA, there is however many years of research and experience available from other researchers, physicians, and scientists from around the world that we can examine. As you continue reading you will find abundant information as to how toxic and damaging chlorine is to the body and how you can protect yourself.

                          Chlorine and Cardiovascular Disease
                          Cardiovascular Disease in 1908
                          When chlorine was first added to the drinking water it was of course intended to benefit mankind by eliminating disease-causing organisms such as typhoid and cholera. And it worked very well. Before chlorine became widely used in1908 in the United States, the deaths resulting from typhoid were about 35,379, or 31 per 100,000 of population. And the deaths from heart disease was about 64,439, or 137 per 100,000 of population.
                          PLEASE NOTE: Deaths from heart disease were actually lower than this before 1900, with some of the first recorded cases occurring in the late 1800's.

                          Cardiovascular Disease in 1950
                          By 1950, or forty-two years later after 1908, chlorine had become more widely used in the water supplies of the United States. Also, people had been exposed to chlorine for a longer period of time. Due to the chlorine and improved sanitary conditions the number of deaths from typhoid had dropped almost 90 which was essentially zero per 100,000 of population. However, the death rate from heart disease had dramatically increased to 535,920, or 355 per 100,000 of population. That was a total increase of 471,481 since 1908 when chlorine was first used in the water supplies.

                          Cardiovascular Disease in 2003
                          In 2003, ninety-five years after chlorine was first added to the drinking water in1908, it has become a common household word that people don’t think much about and is used in almost every municipality’s water supply in the United States. And since the American public has been exposed to chlorine for almost 100 years what have been the results? While typhoid still remains under control and no longer poses a major health risk, the death from heart disease has increased dramatically.

                          Based on the estimates of The American Heart Association for 2003 there were 71,300,000 Americans affected by some form of cardiovascular disease resulting in over 910,614 deaths. And out of those deaths it was estimated that 479,305 were due to coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the United States.

                          Then in 2004 The American Heart Association estimated that 13,200,000 people alive at that time had a history of heart attack, angina pectoris or both. They also estimated that another 1.2 million Americans would have a new or recurrent coronary attack.

                          Coronaries/Cholesterol/Chlorine
                          During the 1960s Dr. Joseph Price wanted to know why cardiovascular heart disease, such as heart attacks, strokes, and atherosclerosis, had become so prevalent during this time when prior to 1900 it was virtually non-existent. In his book Coronaries/Cholesterol/Chlorine published in 1969 he said, “that something has dramatically changed in the last six to seven decades of human history.” Dr. Price felt that there was some sort of environmental factor that was being overlooked by the medical community contributing to the development of atherosclerosis.

                          NOTE: Atherosclerosis is when the large and medium sized arteries develop plaques on the inner layers of the walls where lesions or tears occur. These plaques are made up of cholesterol, other blood fats called lipids, blood platelets and other clotting factors such as fibrinogen, or protein nets, and cellular debris. As the muscle cells in the artery wall enlarge in the affected area and the plaque continues to form, blood flow diminishes to the organs normally supplied by the artery. Also, due to the hardening of the plaque, or calcification from calcium being deposited with the fats, there is a risk of pressure from blood flow breaking off a piece of the plaque which can travel to various parts of the body causing a blockage.

                          Dr. Price further comments in his book, “Chlorination gained relatively wide acceptance in the second decade of this century (20th century) and in the third decade (1920's) it was found that satisfactory killing of organisms was dependent upon a residual of chlorine in the water above the amount necessary to react with organic impurities. When it was remembered that evidence of clinical disease from atherosclerosis takes 10-20 years to develop, it becomes evident that there is a correlation between the introduction and widespread application of chlorination of water supplies and the origin and increasing incidence of heart attacks that is exceedingly difficult to explain away.”

                          Dr. Price Presents Evidence from Around the World
                          Japan:
                          When the doctor looked at people from around the world he discovered that the Japanese people who have a very low rate of heart attack, one-sixth that of the United States, develop atherosclerosis, or blockage of the arteries by cholesterol and other fat deposits, when they move to Hawaii and drink chlorinated water. (It’s interesting to note that when the Japanese where rebuilding their cities after the war they installed water purification systems using chlorine recommended by the American engineers who were assisting. Prior to this time they had never used it. Not soon after this the Japanese medical community began to notice that the Japanese people were starting to have a lot of cardiovascular health issues, namely heart attacks. Their investigation led them to chlorine as the source of the causative factor. They discontinued the use of chlorine.

                          Africa:
                          In Africa, Dr. Price found people that even though they ate a diet very high in fat and cholesterol, but who did not drink chlorinated water, did not get heart attacks.

                          Ireland:
                          Another physician, Dr. Paul Dudley White, mentioned by Dr. Price, noted that Irish farm workers who drank their own well water free of chlorine never suffer from coronary heart disease.

                          Young Men and Advanced Arterial Disease
                          Dr. Price commented on the findings of Dr. William Enos who lead a team of physicians to autopsy 300 American soldiers who died in the Korean war. The average age of the deceased soldiers were 22.1 years. All were examined before their induction and found to be healthy. The autopsies revealed that 77% of the 300 soldiers had, “gross evidence of atherosclerosis ("hardening" of the arteries caused by the formation of multiple plaques) in the coronary arteries.” In some of the soldiers the one or more arteries of the heart were partly or completely occluded, or blocked. Dr. Enos and the team of physicians explanation of their findings was that these young men had the early development of “degenerative-disease.”

                          In other words they felt that this unusual and severe development of coronary heart disease in such young healthy men in such a short period of time was just a natural development of degeneration not attributed to anything they may have been exposed to or ingested.

                          However, note the comments of Dr. Price, “If you ask any man who served in that war he will tell you that the water in Korea for our soldiers was so heavily chlorinated for sanitary reasons that it was almost undrinkable. Apparently, there is a direct causal correlation between the amount of chlorine ingested and the speed and degree of development of atherosclerosis.”

                          PLEASE NOTE: American soldiers in Vietnam, just like the ones in the Korean war, drank heavily chlorinated water as well. And their autopsies revealed the same sort of severe artery damage and atherosclerosis in a short period of time.

                          Chlorine and Heart Problems
                          In a book called Poisoning by Dr. W. F. von Oettingen on page 72 he has this to say on chlorine, “It has been claimed that injury of the mitral valve (of the heart) and cardiac (heart) insufficiency may result from severe exposure to chlorine, or carbon monoxide. Coronary thrombosis, characterized by palpitation, irregularities of the heart beat, and anxiety, has been reported in poisonings with chlorine, carbon monoxide and ferric chloride.” (A chlorine compound.)

                          In his statement the doctor is referring to a severe exposure to chlorine. As we already noted the young soldiers who were examined during induction and were certified healthy before going to war in Korea and Vietnam did have severe exposer to chlorine in a short period of time. Based on what they know about the effects of severe chlorine exposure to the cardiovascular system and how much the soldiers drank in such a short period of time, one can conclude that the main cause of their heart disease was the chlorinated water.

                          Heart Attacks in the United States Since 1908
                          When chlorination of water supplies first began in 1908 in the United States it wasn’t until 10 to 20 years later that heart attacks first began to increase. That’s because unlike the soldiers in the Korean and Vietnam Wars who drank very high concentrations of chlorinated water, causing a faster rate of developing plaques on the blood vessel walls within a year or less, the public water supplies had much lower amounts which produced a slower rate of developing plaques over a 10 to 20 year period.

                          Dr. Price’s Result of an Experiment Using Chlorinated Water
                          In his book, Coronaries/Cholesterol/Chlorine, Dr. Price reveals the results of an experiment he conducted with several hundred healthy young chickens separated into two groups. One group drank from water with chlorine and the other group used water without chlorine. Both groups were raised until they had reached complete maturity. The birds were then autopsied revealing that every chicken in the group that drank the chlorinated water had some level of cardiovascular disease, and the ones without the chlorinated water had no signs. It was also noted that when the amount of chlorine was increased in the water of the chickens who drank it, the severity of destruction to the cardiovascular system was more severe and occurred sooner.

                          Observation of the chickens while they were maturing revealed that the birds without the chlorinated water grew faster, larger and were far healthier, while the chickens that drank the chlorinated water under winter conditions displayed outward signs of poor circulation, shivered, had drooping feathers, and a reduced level of activity. Due to Dr Price’s experiment most of the large poultry producers today provide water without chlorine for the chickens.

                          Dr. Price’s Conclusion on the Safety of Chlorine
                          After studying the results of chlorine on living tissue Dr. Price states in his book that, “nothing can negate the incontrovertible fact, the basic cause of atherosclerosis and resulting entities such as heart and stroke, is chlorine.”

                          Chlorine and Cancer
                          Chlorine, Disinfection-By-Products, and Cancer
                          Fifty-percent or more of municipalities’ water sources come from rivers and lakes. As the surface water in these rivers and lakes come into contact with the organic matter as humus from dead leaves and plants, soil, silt, mud, and different forms of effluent, such as sewage, humic acids are produced. And when chlorine is used to disinfect water, it comes into contact with these humic acids producing what are called DBPs, or Disinfection-By-Products. One class of these chemicals is called trihalomethanes which would include chloroform, trichloroethylene, and carbon tetrachloride, all shown to be carcinogens, or cancer causing.

                          Bladder and Rectal Cancer
                          In a study by physicians from Harvard and the University of Wisconsin it was discovered that these Disinfection-By-Products may be responsible for over 10,700 cases of bladder and rectal cancers per year.

                          Greater Risk of Bladder Cancer
                          In a study reported on in 1987 by the Journal of National Cancer Institute it was found that people who drank chlorinated water had an 80% greater risk of developing bladder cancer.

                          Gastrointestinal and Urinary Tract Cancer
                          Another study by the Columbia University School of Public Health revealed that women who drank chlorinated water from seven upstate New York counties had a 44% higher death rate from gastrointestinal and urinary tract cancers than women who drank water from home wells.

                          Another study in the 1970s which analyzed thousands of cancer deaths in Louisiana, North Carolina, Illinois, and Wisconsin revealed that those who drank chlorinated water over a lifetime have a fifty to one-hundred percent greater risk of dying of gastrointestinal cancer. It is interesting to note that this risk is from water having chlorine at, or below, the Environmental Protection Agency’s standard as “safe?” And that Dr. Robert Harris, the lead scientist, commented that this standard “is going to make the EPA look ridiculous.”

                          Kidney, Liver, Nervous System, and Birth Defects
                          It has been established that chloroform and carbon tetrachloride destroy the kidney, liver, nervous system and cause birth defects.

                          "Studies show - a strong link between chlorinated water supplies with elevated trihalomethane levels and cancers of the bladder, kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, colon and brain." - from: The Maker's Diet Jordan S. Rubin, N. MD., PhD.

                          Chlorine, Women and Breast Cancer
                          Approximately one in every eight women in the United States has breast cancer, and studies show that
                          chlorine and chlorine byproducts, called organochlorines, may be responsible for about one-third of them. The source of the chlorine of course would be from the drinking water, shower, bathing, swimming, and food such as bleached flour, but organochlorines would come from plastics, agricultural chemicals, and cleaning and bleaching products. Women with breast cancer have been found to have 50 to 60% more organochlorines in their breast tissue than women without breast cancer.

                          In a recent report by the organization Greenpeace it summarizes several ways by which organochlorines can promote breast cancer:
                          • They cause adverse mutations in genetic material, which can then give the wrong instructions to the rest of the cell for cell division, differentiation and proliferation.
                          • They strengthen the ability of other chemicals to cause cancer by inducing enzymes that transform them into a more cancer promoting form.
                          • They interfere with the body's natural controls on cell growth and differentiation.
                          • They mimic or interfere with natural hormones like estrogen.
                          • They may suppress the body’s immune system's mechanisms for defending against tumorous cells.
                          Chlorine and Skin Cancer
                          Studies by scientists in Belgium and other places have linked the development of deadly malignant melanoma, a serious form of skin cancer, to chlorine exposure from drinking water and swimming pools. In the Ames, and other mutagenicity tests, sodium hypochlorite has been shown to be mutagenic.

                          Compared to darker skin people, redheads and blondes are more likely to develop skin cancer as their skin contains more pheomelanins, meaning lighter pigmentation, than melanins, or darker pigmentation.

                          Skin Cancers Not Due to Ultraviolet Light
                          It’s interesting to note that skin cancer is not due to exposure to ultraviolet light from the sun, and that people who spend a lot more time indoors exposed to fluorescent light have the most skin cancer. Also, skin cancer most often appears on areas of the body not exposed to the rays of the sun.

                          Skin Cancers Increases Worldwide
                          Due to worldwide pollution of rivers and oceans and chlorination of swimming pools, Franz H. Rampen of the Netherlands has said it has caused an increase in melanoma, or skin cancer.

                          Chlorinated Acids -Extremely Dangerous Chemicals
                          Besides the cancer causing Disinfection-By-Products such as trihalomethanes (THMs) produced when chlorine interacts with humic acids in the surface water of rivers and lakes, it also creates two other chemicals called chlorinated acids, MX and DCA. Many scientists feel that these two chemicals are the most dangerous that people can be exposed to.

                          Mutagen X, also called MX ,is the common name for 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)- furanone (C5 H3Cl3O3) - found in all chlorinated water for which it was tested. H. Paul Ringhand, an EPA chemist, feels that MX may be the single most mutagenic chemical in city water sources. And anything that can mutate, or in this case adversely alter the genetic material of healthy cells, will increase their cancer-causing potential.

                          DCA (dichloroacetic acid) - adversely alters cholesterol metabolism increasing the bad forms of LDL (low density lipoprotein), VLDL (very low density lipoprotein), and lipoprotein a, all of which travel from the liver to the blood stream where they can plug the arteries producing plaques increasing the risks of heart attack and stroke, while at the same time decreasing the good HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol which travels from the blood to the liver reducing cholesterol and the risks of heart attack and stroke. DCA has also been shown to cause liver cancer in lab animals.

                          Chlorine and Its Other Negative Effects on the Body
                          Chlorine and Diabetes
                          Healthy blood sugar levels are maintained by the insulin produced by the beta cells from the islets of langerhans located in the pancreas. When chlorine enters the body it produces a powerful oxidizing agent, or uric acid derivative, called alloxan. This alloxan creates free radicals that damage the DNA in the beta cells of the islets of langerhans in the pancreas causing the cells to malfunction and eventually die. Alloxan also interferes with the activity of the mineral zinc required for the activation of an enzyme, DNA ligase, that helps produce the genetic material for the production of new beta cells. And the chlorine deactivates the B vitamin niacin needed to place the zinc into the enzyme. Zinc is also required for the storage and function of insulin. When beta cells fail to produce sufficient insulin, or no longer produce insulin, and the mineral zinc has insufficient activity, diabetes will be the result.

                          The deleterious effects of alloxan on the pancreas is so powerful that the Textbook of Natural Medicine calls it “a potent beta-cell toxin.”

                          Chlorine In Bleached Flour Contributes to Alloxan Production
                          Commercial yeasted breads, even the whole-grain varieties, often have other problems. They typically contain flour bleach, which forms alloxan, a compound known to cause diabetes in animals by destroying the beta cells of the pancreas (Clinical Nutrition Newsletter, Dec. 1982). …
                          Healing With Whole Foods by Paul Pitchford, page 451

                          Zinc and Its Importance to Our Health
                          In order to thoroughly understand how the reduced activity of zinc by alloxan, produced from chlorine in our body, can affect our health we need to see how essential it is.
                          • Zinc is concentrated in the body tissues in the following order: prostate, eye retina, liver, kidney, muscle, bone, testes, pancreas, heart, spleen, lung, brain, and the adrenal gland.
                          • It is required for the proper function of over 25 enzymes for digestion and metabolism.
                          • Involved in DNA synthesis to manufacture protein needed for growth, regeneration of new tissue, repair of damaged tissue, replacement of enzymes, and antibodies for healthy immune system function.
                          • Absorption and activation of vitamins, particularly the B vitamins.
                          • Needed throughout the reproductive process.
                          • Normal prostate function.
                          • Normal function of insulin for healthy blood sugar control.
                          • Wound healing as zinc integrates the amino acid cystine into the protein of skin and converts glycine and proline into skin collagen. Also it promotes protein synthesis throughout the body for repair of tissues and wound healing.
                          • Proper metabolism of alcohol.
                          • Helps the body eliminate lactic acid buildup produced from muscles due to exercise or work.
                          • Assists in movement of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs for removal.
                          As seen from this list zinc is heavily involved throughout the entire human body, and any deficiency or reduced activity of this essential mineral could negatively impact the health in any number of ways.

                          Zinc and DNA
                          Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is found in every cell of the human body which is essentially a blueprint of all the instructions and information needed for the cell to reproduce itself. For example a liver cell can become only a liver cell and a bone cell can become only a bone cell. When it comes time for the cell to reproduce enzymes are needed to put the DNA together within the cell.

                          In order for the enzymes to become activated several minerals are required, including zinc. When zinc is inhibited from working properly, new DNA cannot be produced. As a result new cell reproduction to replace the old dying cells, of the liver, heart, brain, pancreas, kidneys, thyroid, gastrointestinal tract, arteries, muscle, tendons, lungs, bone, cartilage and other cells throughout the body, slows down or stops altogether. The end result being the breakdown of cells in bones, cartilage, spinal discs, muscles, brain, organs and glands and whatever part of the body is affected by hampered DNA production. If this process were allowed to continue anyone can see that this would have a devastating affect on the health of the body.

                          Zinc and Premature Aging of th Body
                          Any interference with the activity of zinc and new DNA production and cell replication would be affecting every cell in the body resulting in premature aging.

                          Signs of premature aging would be excess wrinkling of the skin, reduced lubrication of the joints, less flexibility and lost range of motion, cartilage and spinal disc deterioration, less energy, weakening eyesight, weight gain from excess fat and reduced muscle tissue, loss of appetite, hormone imbalances, high cholesterol and blood fats, less flexible and healthy blood vessels, increased blood pressure, reduced sex drive, fluctuating blood sugar levels, lowered immune system function, poor digestion and elimination, reduced absorption of nutrients in the small intestine, impaired mental function, increased blood pressure, inflammation, increased sensitivity to pain, poor wound healing, poor teeth, gum, and enamel health, and weak and thinning bones. In essence the body is basically falling apart at an accelerated rate!

                          Zinc and the Small Intestine
                          The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption takes place of the food we eat. On the wall of the small intestine are what are called villi. The primary job of the villi is to absorb nutrients broken down by digestion into the blood stream where they are eventually delivered to individual cells throughout the body. Lining the small intestine, including the villi, are epithelial cells. Due to the harsh environment of the small intestine more than a 100 million intestinal cells die off every sixty seconds with a complete replacement of the lining of the small intestine every 3 days. The cell replacement on the tips of the villi are especially important as this is where the majority of the absorption of nutrients take place.

                          Without proper zinc activity new DNA cannot be produced and replication of healthy epithelial cells would be affected hindering the repair of the surface of the villi reducing their ability to absorb nutrients. If this were not corrected overtime malnutrition of the entire body would result.

                          For those people who are suffering form various bowel problems such as crohns, colitis, celiac, diarrhea, poor absorption, inflammation and others, it would be very prudent to remove yourself from exposure to chlorine as much as possible. That would mean either purchasing chlorine-free drinking water, or using filters at home for your drinking water, as well as on your shower and bath tub. More about this will be mentioned at the end of the article.

                          Zinc and Vitamin D
                          Vitamin D is considered both a hormone, since the body can produce it when the skin is exposed to sunlight, and a vitamin. Scientists have found that vitamin D is needed not only to promote absorption of calcium from the small intestine and bone formation, but also works with the immune system to keep it functioning normally and regulates the health and activity of 20 different tissues including the brain and cell growth.

                          The body can obtain vitamin D, also known as cholecalciferol, by sunlight hitting the skin which turns 7-dihydroxycholesterol into cholecalciferol, from the food we eat, and from vitamin D supplements, preferably D3, the natural form.

                          Vitamin D Must Be Converted Into the Biologically Active Forms for Use
                          Once D3, cholecalciferol, is available to the body it must be converted into the more potent bioactive forms, 25-dihydroxycholesterol and 1,25-dihydroxycholesterol, in order for it to be useful to the body. Cholecalciferol first goes to the liver where an enzyme converts it into 25-dihydroxycholesterol. From there 25-dihydroxycholesterol goes to the kidneys where another enzyme is needed to convert it to 1,25-dihydroxycholesterol.

                          Zinc Required for Enzymes to Produce the Bioactive Forms of Vitamin D
                          As mentioned earlier, enzymes are needed for the activation of the thousands of processes within the human body, in this case vitamin D3. And minerals are required for the production and activation of the enzymes. To produce and activate the enzymes to convert vitamin D into the bioactive forms, minerals such as magnesium, boron, manganese, and zinc are required.

                          Zinc Inhibition by Alloxan from Chlorine Reduces Vitamin D Activity
                          If the minerals required for the conversion process are low, and, or zinc is inhibited by alloxan from chlorine, the body cannot produce the enzymes required to convert the natural form of D3, cholecalciferol, into the more potent and biologically active forms reducing, and or preventing, the ability to absorb calcium from the small intestine, maintain a healthy immune system, and regulate the health of the other twenty tissues, such as the brain and cell growth.

                          Low Vitamin D Intake and Conversion Contribute to Health Problems
                          Low vitamin D3 intake and inhibited conversion into the biologically active forms will contribute to bone loss and possible alteration in the immune system causing it to attack the body producing inflammation and weakening the bones. Also, research has discovered that it can contribute to diabetes and autoimmune diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis.

                          Zinc, Vitamin A and Eye Health
                          Vitamin A in the body is stored in the liver. In order for the vitamin A to be used it has to be transported to the various locations throughout the body, such as the retina of the eyes which contains one of the highest concentrations of zinc in the body. The zinc is required to make the transport protein to move the vitamin A from the liver to the retina. The alloxan from chlorine would interfere with zinc’s activity preventing the use of vitamin A contributing to problems of the eye, and any other areas of the body that require vitamin A, such as lung tissue.

                          Chlorine and Friendly Bacteria (Probiotics)
                          We have about four pounds of bacteria living in our digestive tract. In fact it is considered an organ. In a healthy bowel about 85% of it should be good and 15% bad. This is referred to as symbiosis because of the healthy beneficial relationship between the bacteria and our body. The two primary strains of bacteria are bifidus and acidophilus. From these two the body develops other friendly strains with their particular benefits. Please note the benefits of the two strains of friendly bacteria below.

                          Benefits of Bifidobacteria
                          1. Protects the integrity of the intestinal lining by preventing the growth of pathogenic bacteria and yeasts.
                          2. Maintains a healthy acid pH balance in the intestine which prevents disease-producing microbes from gaining a foothold.
                          3. Reduces the negative effects of antibiotics.
                          4. The primary bacteria in infants which strengthens their immune system and helps them grow.
                          5. Protects against bowel cancer by preventing the growth of bacteria that produce nitrates, cancer producing chemicals.
                          6. Reduces the toxic load of the liver by inhibiting the production and absorption of toxins by disease-causing bacteria.
                          7. Manufactures B vitamins.
                          8. Assists in the regulation of peristalsis, muscle movement of the intestines, for healthy bowel elimination.
                          9. Helps in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-induced diarrhea.
                          Benefits of Lactobacillus acidophilus
                          1. Prevents the overgrowth of disease-producing microbes such as Candida, E. Coli, H. Pylori and Salmonella.
                          2. Helps in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-induced diarrhea.
                          3. Improves the absorption of nutrients.
                          4. Maintains the integrity of the intestinal wall to protect against the absorption of antigens such as toxins, bacteria, and undigested food particles which could produce an antigenic response. An antigenic response is where the immune system produces antibodies called immunoglobulins in response to the presence of antigens in the blood. These antigens can also trigger other physiologic responses such as inflammation which, if left unchecked, can progress slowly and subclincally, which means the individual is not manifesting the characteristic clinical symptoms, adversely affecting the health of the intestines, including the digestion and absorption of food.
                          5. Reduces the stress due to food poisoning.
                          6. Maintains an acid pH in the intestines which creates a hostile environment inhibiting the growth of pathogens, agents that causes disease, especially a living microorganism such as a bacterium or fungus, and yeasts.
                          Chlorine’s Contribution to the Destruction of the Friendly Bacteria
                          There are many things that disrupt and destroy the friendly bacteria such as processed foods, sugars, sodas, various drugs from your physician and over the counter medications such as Tylenol and Aspirin, low fiber, antibiotics from your physician and food, alcohol, smoking, stress, and backed up rotting food in the intestines. But now you add the toxic chemical chlorine and you have a bad situation made even worse. The friendly bacteria are destroyed and reduced down to 15% or lower and the majority now become 85% or more bad. This is referred to as dysbiosis because of the unhealthy relationship between the bacteria and the body.

                          With the majority of the bacteria being in a dysbiotic, or bad state, there will be reduced digestion and absorption of nutrients from our food and the unhealthy growth of bad bacteria, germs, microbes and other harmful pathogens. The immune system will be weakened as well, since 70% of it is located in the small intestine.
                          The surface of the bowel wall also becomes impaired, and in many cases damaged, resulting in what is called leaky-gut syndrome. This is where undigested food and other matter not normally permitted into the bloodstream enters creating allergic and inflammatory reactions as the immune system becomes activated.

                          As the harmful pathogens grow in number and travel into the blood stream through the now weakened intestinal wall, the overburdened liver cannot eliminate them, and the immune system due to its weakened state cannot fend them off. As a result the individual’s health becomes impaired and the immune system can become altered and begin attacking the body instead of defending it. This can result in increased inflammation of various tissues such as the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and connective.

                          Excessive and long term inflammation can affect the joints contributing to stiffness and pain and increase the risk of osteoarthritis, and could possibly induce auto immune diseases such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis. The cardiovascular system will be affected as well increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. In fact, physicians now perform a blood test for C-Reactive Protein which indicates the level of inflammation of the cardiovascular system. The higher your C-Reactive Protein the greater your risk of heart attack and stroke, as much as three times higher.

                          Parasites
                          Last but not least, is something most people do not consider, parasites. A parasite is an organism that obtains its food, nutrition, and shelter by living in or on another organism. People can be a host to over one hundred different types of parasites. In a person with a healthy immune and digestive system most parasites are destroyed and eliminated. But once the integrity of the bowel and immune system is impaired by an unhealthy diet, drugs, lifestyle and chlorine exposure this all changes and parasites can now make their home inside of the body contributing to poor health in many other ways.

                          Chlorine, Asthma, Allergies and Bowel Problems
                          Many people in the United States suffer from asthma, allergies and bowel problems. And in many of these cases the cause, or causes, cannot be found. Note that in 1934 a physician, Dr. M. J. Gutmann of Jerusalem, found an article in the Journal of Allergy in which chlorinated water was the cause of asthma and functional colitis.
                          When chlorinated water was completely taken away from the patient and given just distilled water, within 3 days both disorders went away and did not reappear. But when the physician put just a small drop of sodium hypochloride in the distilled drinking water the colitis and asthma returned.

                          Dr. Guttman also relates that he had other patients who were affected by even the smallest amounts of chlorine by breaking out with hives. One case was of a woman 28 years old who suffered with hives from childhood. In an effort to get rid of them she experimented with all kinds of diets to locate the offending food. When she tried the recommendation to change her drinking water the hives disappeared within a few days. However, when she tried drinking chlorinated water again the hives would return.

                          Another Case of Hives
                          Another case of chlorinated induced hives was reported on by Dr. Gutmann from an article he read in the November 1944 issue of the Journal of Allergy. An English officer had a case of giant hives. In the testing with over forty different foods, they found no sensitivity, or cause for the allergic reaction. They also found no indications of bacteria that would cause the allergy.

                          When the English officer who was stationed in Jerusalem was transferred to other duty stations where he drank non-chlorinated mineral water, his hives disappeared. And this is the only thing that changed, as his diet and lifestyle remained the same. But whenever he was transferred back to the duty station in Jerusalem and drank the chlorinated water the hives would return immediately.

                          Chlorine Destroys Essential Fatty Acids
                          Essential fatty acids such as the omega-3, 6, and 9, are required to maintain the health of the entire body. Some of the many essential areas include:
                          • Cardiovascular, reproductive, immune, and nervous systems.
                          • Manufacture and repair cell membranes, enabling the cells to obtain optimum nutrition and expel harmful waste products.
                          • Production of prostaglandins, which regulate body functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, blood clotting, fertility, conception, and play a role in immune function by regulating inflammation and encouraging the body to fight infection.
                          • Proper growth in children, particularly for neural development and maturation of sensory systems, with male children having higher needs than females. Fetuses and breast-fed infants also require an adequate supply of EFAs through the mother's dietary intake.
                          • The polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid ) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) found in cold water fish are essential for maintaining our health in the following areas: DHA helps forming neural transmitters, such as phosphatidylserine, important for brain function, and is found in the retina of the eye, indicating a role in its function. They support a healthy cardiovascular and nervous system, cell function, control inflammation, and support joint health and function when converted into hormone-like compounds called prostaglandins that regulate their activity. DHA is needed for the fetus, the infant, and as we age as it is highly involved in the brain. As we age our body produces less EPA and DHA, which may contribute to poor mental focus and cognitive function, and may improve brain abnormalities such as Alzheimer's disease, and other forms of dementia when taken as a supplement or consumed from foods which naturally contain them such as fish and other sea foods. These two omega-3 fatty acids also help prevent the skin from drying and flaking, cushion organs and tissues, insulate the body against heat loss, and are used as an energy source.
                          Most people in the United States are already deficient in essential fatty acids and have an imbalance because of eating too many processed fats and oils, free radical damage destroying the good fats because of inadequate antioxidant protection, and an unbalanced omega 6 to 3 ratio.

                          Another way that our essential fatty acids are destroyed is by chlorine. This occurs when chlorine destroys many of the antioxidants, such as vitamins E and A, that protect these fats from free radical damage. Another way that these essential fats are destroyed is when chlorine mixes with surface water it creates a compound called hypochlorite which produces excess free radicals that oxidize them, turning them rancid. This was demonstrated by an industrialist chemist J. P. Bercz in 1992.

                          Deficient and oxidized essential fatty acids and imbalances can contribute to accelerated aging, excessive weight gain, high cholesterol levels with unhealthy ratios of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and serious health problems such as excessive systemic inflammation, high blood pressure, stroke, heart attack, cancer, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, asthma, lupus, postpartum depression, obesity, arthritis, immune system dysfunction, liver dysfunction, Alzheimer's Disease, ADHD, autism, schizophrenia, depression, bone loss, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and various digestive disorders such as leaky gut syndrome, crohn’s disease, and inflammatory bowel disease.

                          Chlorine, Halides and the Thyroid
                          Chlorine belongs to a group of chemicals called halides. Other halides include fluorine, or calcium flouride, in drinking water and dental products and bromides found in disinfectants, pesticides, sodas, and dough conditioners for bread.

                          Iodine - A Beneficial Halide
                          Another halide which is very beneficial to our health is organic iodine, with iodine being the smallest of these halides. Iodine is required by the body to be used in the thyroid along with the amino acid, L-tyrosine, to produce a thyroid hormone called thyroxin. Almost every tissue in the human body is directly or indirectly affected by thyroid hormone. When chlorine, and other halides such as sodium fluoride, are taken into the body, being smaller in size than iodine, they will displace the iodine in the thyroid resulting in poor thyroid function and thyroxin production.

                          Without sufficient thyroxin the whole body will be affected such as the heart, nervous system, metabolism, and body temperature regulation. Health problems that can result due to thyroxine disruption would be low energy, poor sleep patterns, slower metabolism with weight gain, edema or water retention, hormone imbalances, and poor bone remodeling contributing to osteoporosis.

                          Chlorine and Iron
                          Iron is the nucleus of each blood cell. And chlorine affects iron negatively as an oxidizing agent essentially threatening the healthy structure of blood. In the book, Water Fit to Drink by Carol Keough, it cites studies done by the University of Michigan linking chlorinated water to anemia, a condition where red blood cells are not providing adequate oxygen to body tissues.

                          Chlorine Destroys Vitamin E
                          Notice what Dr. Richard Kunin said happens to vitamin E when subjected to chlorine in his book, Mega-Nutrition published by New American Library, “Even in the minute quantities sufficient to kill germs, chlorine can undermine the body’s defenses against atherosclerosis. Chlorine creates electrically charged molecules called free radicals, which can combine with alpha tocopherol (vitamin E) and eliminate it from your system. In addition, free radicals can directly damage the [lining] of blood vessels and so create the environment for the formation of plaque.”

                          Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that protects us from excess free radicals that could damage our cells such as the ones in the heart and blood vessel walls helping to prevent cardiovascular disease and tumor formation. Insufficient amounts of vitamin E can contribute poor heart muscle function and weakened and constricted blood vessels contributing to elevated blood pressure and heart disease.

                          Chlorine Destroys Vitamins A, B-Complex, C and Amino Acid Tryptophan
                          In the book edited by J. I. Rodale and staff, Prevention Method for Better Health, 1968 the editor mentions on page 383 that he read an article at that time from a German magazine on the subject of chlorine and its ability to destroy, or reduce not only vitamin E, but also the vitamins A, B, C, and the amino acid tryptophan.

                          Importance of A, C, and E
                          Vitamins A, C, and E are antioxidants. They work together to support a healthy immune system, teeth, bones, joints, skin, eyes, lungs, DNA, and cardiovascular system preventing the oxidizing of cholesterol and other blood fats preventing plaque buildup on the blood vessel walls. Vitamin C is needed to insure the healthy turn-over of collagen throughout the body, including the cardiovascular system, bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, muscles, organs, and glands, because it is required as an enzyme cofactor for prolyl hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylase to convert the amino acids L-lysine and L-proline into the hydroxy forms, hyroxylysine and hydroxyproline. This is especially crucial in maintaining the health of the covering on the blood vessel walls called the endothelium which reduces the friction of blood flow, and the actual muscle cells that make up the blood vessels. If proper collagen levels are not maintained, the blood vessels can become stiff and inflexible increasing blood pressure. There is also a greater risk of internal bleeding from the blood vessels. Also, since collagen is likened to glue that holds our body together, any disruption in its turnover will weaken its entire structure.

                          The Importance of B Vitamins
                          The B vitamins acts as coenzymes for the activation of many enzymes for the many complex chemical interactions, healthy gastrointestinal tract, the breakdown and utilization of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, nervous system function, healthy blood sugar levels, brain function, energy production, skin, hair, liver, eyes, amino acid utilization, and DNA activation and utilization.

                          Chlorine, B-6, B-12, Folic Acid, Homocysteine and Heart Disease
                          One of the major factors in maintaining the strength, flexibility, and health of the lining of the blood vessel walls, called the endothelium, and the muscle cells of the blood vessels is collagen. If this collagen becomes broken down and never gets replaced the endothelium and the walls of the blood vessels essentially become damaged. One of the things that can damage the blood vessels is an amino acid called homocysteine.

                          Homocysteine production is a normal part of digestion when foods are eaten containing the amino acid methionine. In a healthy person with sufficient amounts of B-6, folic acid and B-12 this is not a problem because these B vitamins are used by the body to convert it into cystine, cysteine, and methionine, all harmless amino acids. However, if they are not available the homocysteine can become overly elevated in the blood with the ability to breakdown the collagen damaging the lining of the blood vessels and the muscle cells of the blood vessel walls producing lesions, or small tears.

                          In an effort to repair these lesions the body sets in motion several mechanisms (1) The liver begins producing more cholesterol, reducing the good HDL (which carries cholesterol out of the circulatory system to the liver) and elevates the LDL and VLDL (which carries the cholesterol and other lipids, or fats, from the liver out to the circulatory system), and other lipids such as lipoprotein (a) to go to the sites of damage and plug up, or cover over the lesion (2) the body kicks in the clotting system sending blood platelets and fibrinogen (protein nets) to the affected areas to cover over, or plug up as well and (3) the muscle cells in the blood vessel wall where the damage has occurred begin to grow abnormally large.

                          All of this contributes to narrowing of the arteries as the plaque builds up and the muscle cells expand cutting blood flow to the heart and other affected areas eventually leading to a heart attack or stroke if left unchecked.

                          Homocysteine and Bone Loss
                          Homocysteine also contributes to osteoporosis, or bone loss, by interfering with the body’s collagen cross-linking which causes a defective bone matrix. As a result, the normal bone-building process is severely diminished weakening the bone tissue.

                          Chlorine, B-6, Niacin, Zinc and Tryptophan
                          Tryptophan is an essential amino acid which is a precursor to a neurotransmitter in the brain called serotonin. Serotonin is also a platelet clotting factor and neurohormone found in the organs throughout the body. Two of the B vitamins, B-6 and niacin along with the mineral zinc and other nutrients are needed to convert tryptophan into serotonin.

                          Serotonin's production can be inhibited by chlorine’s interference of tryptophan, B-6, niacin, and zinc which can contribute to abnormal sleep patterns, insomnia, poor brain function, mental retardation, depression, suicide, schizophrenia, aggressive behavior, poor clotting, compulsive eating leading to excessive weight gain, anorexia, deficiency of growth hormone and possibly the hormone prolactin, required for healthy mammary development and milk production.

                          Lack of Vitamin E and Joint Problems
                          The body produces a specialized proteoglycan called hyaluronic acid which is required to produce a thick lubricating fluid called synovial fluid. If the level of the hyaluronic acid drops then the synovial fluid will lose its viscosity, or lubricating ability, allowing too much friction during movement eventually wearing out the cartilage to the point of bone on bone, and making the joint stiff and painful to move.

                          The enzyme hyaluronidase breaks down hyaluronic acid reducing the viscosity, or lubricating qualities of the synovial fluid. It also has the ability to destroy the synoival fluid and to send the decomposed fluid to the lymphatic system causing the joints to swell.

                          Adequate levels of the antioxidant vitamin E prevent the excessive production of this hyaluronidase enzyme. When chlorine enters the body it destroys vitamin E allowing the hyaluronidase to accumulate excessively destroying hyaluronic acid and the synoival fluid resulting in the swelling and inflammation of the joints. If this situation is not corrected it would eventually lead to arthritis and destruction of the cartilage.

                          Chlorine - A “Crippler and Killer”
                          While we can’t blame every disease or health problem on chlorine, we can however, say that chlorine’s long history of use certainly is a major contributor allowing it to be called a “crippler and killer”. As its history reveals its use started as well intentioned and was the technology of its time saving many lives from cholera, typhoid and other infectious and deadly diseases. But that was over 150 years ago. This is now the 21st century and we are still using technology from the 19th century. Or, should I say almost all.

                          There are some cities that recognize that chlorine is a toxic poison and use safer means to disinfect water. For example, because chlorine gas was used as a weapon during the two world wars in Europe, and recognizing its deadly nature, many communities there do not use chlorine, but instead use ozone (oxygen) and ultraviolet light to kill harmful microorganisms. Another method used is a sand filtration system such as the one in Holland.

                          The main reason why more cities do not use these alternative methods is because of cost. Chlorine is cheap and they would have to spend more money than they are willing to make the necessary changes to their purification systems.

                          But until the time comes, if ever, when every major city removes chemicals such as chlorine and sodium fluoride from the drinking water people will have to take responsibility and remove it themselves.

                          Reducing and Eliminating Chlorine from Your Life
                          Many people have begun to this do this already by either purchasing chlorine free water or by using a filter on their tap at home. However, there are other areas of chlorine exposure.

                          Showers and Bathes
                          Studies done on chlorine exposure have revealed that up to 2/3rds of it comes from showering and taking a bath. That means that we absorb more chlorine when showering or bathing than if we drank 8 glasses of chlorinated water a day. That’s because when we take a shower or bath we breath chlorine gas called chloroform which goes not only into the lungs but also goes directly into the blood stream, while we absorb the chlorine in the water into the pores of our skin that have been opened by the hot water.

                          Comments from Others
                          "Volatile organics can evaporate from water in a shower or bath." from: Is Your Water Safe to Drink? Consumer Reports"

                          A long, hot shower can be dangerous. The toxic chemicals are inhaled in high concentrations." from: Bottom Line Dr. John Andelman, PhD. Books

                          "Avoiding contact with chlorinated water is of the utmost importance. This includes bathing water and drinking water. Chlorine kills bacteria, friendly and unfriendly, in the intestines. it can be absorbed through the skin. I recommend installing a shower filter to remove Chlorine." -from: Patient, Heal Thyself Jordan S. Rubin, N.MD., PhD.

                          Asthma and Bronchitis Has Increased Dramatically
                          In the last 20 years asthma and bronchitis has increased 300%, especially in children. Researchers feel this is due to breathing chlorine gas, or chloroform. Note what Dr. Lance Wallace of the United States Environmental Protection Agency said about this, “ Showering is suspected as the primary cause of elevated levels of chloroform in nearly every home because of chlorine in the water.”

                          Chlorine and Dishwashers
                          Another area of the house that increases the exposure to chlorine is from dishwashers. When the chlorine containing detergents are added to the dishwasher they blend with the organic food matter creating various harmful chlorine compounds that get vented into the air that we breathe. A dishwater can vent 5 to 7 quarts of air per minute of operation. To reduce this hazard you could either wash dishes by hand in a sink which has a filter, and if you do not have filtered water you can wear rubber gloves, or use chlorine-free automatic dishwashing gel by Seventh Generation. If you cannot find the gel in your area their toll free number is 1-800-456-1191. Their web address is www.seventhgeneration.com.

                          Chlorine and Swimming Pools
                          Another area of severe chlorine exposure is swimming pools. Researchers found that the chlorine in the water reacts to the organic matter of the human body such as sweat, urine, blood, feces, mucus, and skin cells producing toxic chlorine by-products called chloramines. Also, chloroform exposure is 70 to 240 times higher in the air over indoor pools than outdoor pools. One hour of swimming in a pool with chlorine showed chloroform concentrations in the swimmers’ blood ranging from 100 to 1,093 parts per billion.

                          Chlorine and the Skin and Hair
                          Besides the damaging effects of chlorine internally, it also damages our skin and hair. The chlorine robs the skin and hair of moisture making it less elastic as it breaks down the protein structures that keep them healthy, strong and flexible. Over time the appearance would become less youthful and healthy looking.

                          The Truth About Beauty
                          Note this statement from Kat James, The Truth About Beauty, "at least 70% of the skin's blemish- and wrinkle fighting hydration comes from the water we consume. If you haven't done so already, switching from chlorinated tap water-the water you shower in- to reliably pure water will be perhaps the most important health and beauty lifestyle upgrade you will ever make." About dry skin, she points out. "Chlorinated water can contribute to dry skin. Installing a shower filter can make an unbelievable difference."

                          Premium Shower and Water Filters
                          For those who interested in a shower filter to remove chlorine from their water I recommend the Premium Shower Filter by New Wave Enviro Products. I have been using this filter for about 14 years and it works extremely well. And if you looking for a water filter to remove chlorine from the water you use to drink and cook with they also have one called the Premium 10-Stage Filter that uses the same KDF® technology as the shower filter.

                          How Does the Premium Shower Filter Work?
                          A patented mixture of zinc and copper called KDF-55, plus crystal Quartz, converts chlorine into zinc chloride. Zinc is considered to be helpful in alleviating dandruff and is used in anti-dandruff shampoos. Unlike carbon, KDF® stands up to hot water and is very effective in filtering out chlorine, odors and dirt particles. KDF® possesses strong bacteriostatic character, inhibiting the growth of bacteria, fungus, algae and mildew. The Premium Shower Filter contains 14 oz. of KDF® and 2 oz. of crystal Quartz for enhanced performance.

                          Proven Effectiveness and Safety of KDF® Technology
                          In a book called, Don’t Drink the Water published in 1996, by Lono Kahuna Kupua A’O, on pages 65 and 66, it has this to say about KDF® technology.” Independent laboratory tests confirm user experience that KDF® is one of the best tools for improving drinking and bathing water naturally and economically. Compared to carbon-only units, KDF® lasts far longer, doesn’t permit bacterial growth, and removes a much wider range of inorganic matter (e.g. heavy metals). Compared to reverse-osmosis, KDF® is less expensive, wastes no water, does not require membrane replacement, works in most water temperatures, and removes chlorine. Compared to ultraviolet lights, KDF® works in turbid water, doesn't require bulb replacement or electricity, and takes out inorganics. Compared to ozone, KDF® lasts longer than 17 seconds for a continued residual bacteriostatic effect in water, does not require electricity, and costs less. Compared to water softeners, KDF® reduces hard scale and helps to condition water without the need for brine tanks, or salt replacement. It is also less expensive to install and operate.”

                          “In 1992, the EPA ruled that KDF® qualifies as a mechanical device which filters water and imparts nothing harmful to the water. Later that year, the National Sanitation Foundation tested the media and found it to be in compliance with its Standard 61, which certifies that the media imparts nothing harmful to the filtered water.”

                          Summary
                          Besides learning to eat healthy, exercising regularly, and improving our overall lifestyle, we also need to remove and prevent toxic chemicals like chlorine from our drinking water, the shower and bath, dishwasher, swimming pools, and even food such as bleached flour.

                          We have already examined the consequences to the body when we allow chlorine to interfere with the way it functions. What good does it do to spend money on supplements, eat organic foods, and try to live the best healthy lifestyle possible if we allow chlorine to destroy our vitamins, minerals, enzymes, essential fatty acids, amino acids, proteins, DNA, skin, hair, and the trillions of cells that make up our body?

                          And, while it’s true we cannot entirely prevent ourselves from growing old and eventually dying, we can however take better care of ourselves, so we can age more gracefully and enjoy better health and live our lives without the debilitating diseases so common to many.

                          So, whether you are suffering from a health problem, or you enjoy a fairly good level of health and vitality, the removal of chlorine would certainly improve your quality of life.


                          What research is being done?

                          The mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke ( NINDS ) is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use that knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease. The NINDS is a component of the National Institutes of Health ( NIH ), the leading supporter of biomedical research in the world.

                          The range of NIH-funded research on Friedreich ataxia (FA) includes determining what causes the gene mutation and how it functions, gaining a better understanding of frataxin, and investigating ways to override the genetic mutation and to develop treatments for the disease. In addition to the NINDS , several other Institutes and Centers of the NIH support research on Friedreich ataxia.

                          In Friedreich ataxia the expanded GAA triplet-repeat reduces the production of frataxin but the exact mechanism of how the gene is &ldquosilenced&rdquo (turned off) is unknown. Among current NINDS-funded projects, researchers hope to define the mechanisms involved in the silencing of the FXN gene, which could reveal potential ways to restore normal gene function. One such project uses induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines that have been turned into (an action called derived) neuronal cells as a model system to study the mechanisms of FXN gene silencing. (iPSCs are a type of stem cell that can be derived from skin or blood cells and be activated to become other types of cells of the body.) This work will hopefully reveal new therapeutic strategies for Friedreich ataxia and potentially also related repeat expansion diseases. Another project is using iPSC-derived cell models to identify gene expression changes in Friedreich ataxia to better understand the mitochondrial defects associated with the disease and develop biomarkers (signs that can indicate the diagnosis or progression of a disease) for future clinical trials.

                          Other NINDS-supported researchers are working to develop new animal models of Friedreich ataxia that closely mimic the gene mutations found in people affected by the disease. These new models, along with already existing models, are needed as critical research tools to define the cellular defects of the disease in more detail and to enhance the search for novel therapies.

                          NIH-funded researchers are also studying the metabolic defects of mitochondria (the energy-producing &ldquopower plants&rdquo in cells) in people with Friedreich ataxia. For example, one project is analyzing the role of frataxin in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis in mitochondria. In addition, a project of the Therapeutics for Rare and Neglected Diseases program of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences ( NCATS ) is seeking to develop a protein replacement therapy for Friedreich ataxia that uses a new technology to deliver functional frataxin protein to mitochondria.

                          More information about Friedreich ataxia research supported by NINDS and other NIH Institutes and Centers can be found using NIH RePORTER, a searchable database of current and past research projects supported by NIH and other federal agencies. RePORTER also includes links to publications and resources from these projects. Another useful resource is ClinicalTrials.gov, an NIH registry of all registered clinical trials for human diseases.


                          Have you experienced Kratom side effects?

                          If you’ve used and/or are currently using kratom, feel free to document any side effects and/or adverse reactions that you’ve experienced in the comments section below. In your personal experience, which kratom side effects have you found to be most debilitating and/or problematic? On a numeric scale ranging from 1 to 10 (with “1” being least severe and “10” being most severe), what would you rate the severity of these kratom side effects?

                          Have you figured out any ways to manage, treat, and/or attenuate your most troubling side effects? To help others get a better understanding of your situation, provide some additional details such as: the average dosage of kratom you ingest (e.g. 3 grams), the vein color/strain you use and supplier (e.g. Red Maeng Da from [hypothetical] “Company K”) how frequently you use kratom (e.g. thrice daily), and your cumulative duration of usage (e.g. 3 months). If you’re aware of your allelic expression for isoenzymes implicated in metabolism of kratom alkaloids such as CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4 – feel free to make note of them as well and/or speculate as to how they may influence your specific kratom side effects.

                          Also mention whether you’re using any additional substances (e.g. alcohol, medications, supplements, illicit drugs, etc.). along with kratom or on the same days as kratom. If you are using additional substances with kratom, have you considered that the side effects you’re attributing to kratom may be more accurately attributed to another substance OR possibly a substance-kratom interaction. If you happen to be a regular, long-term kratom user, have you noticed any change in specific side effect occurrence and/or severity over time?

                          Moreover, if you’ve tried multiple types, strains, or sources from kratom – how did side effects differ from each? Did you find that you’re able to tolerate one particular strain better than another – or were they all relatively equal? Should you know of any helpful tactics for managing kratom side effects, be sure to share them in your comment – it might help someone else.

                          Lastly, realize that while kratom may be therapeutically beneficial for many, some individuals may find it intolerable. Always listen to your body and realize that no substance, including kratom, is utopian. If you find the side effects to be disconcerting, there’s no reason to continue using it – there are numerous pharmaceutical, supplemental, and non-pharmacologic alternatives.

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                          I found this page after waking from one of the worst nightmares of my entire life. I was unable to shake the dream and feel completely awake, like I was still stuck in the dream.

                          I’ve been using Kratom for over a year, and I have bad dreams now and then, but never like this. I’ve taken psychedelics when I was a teen, and this was pretty close to the sensation of a bad trip – confusion, and terror.

                          Hi been taking Kratom two years now for back pain but the last year I’ve really bad muscle pains in my glutes and legs especially in my calves. I thought at first it was just an extension of my back pain but lately I’m thinking the Kratom is causing it. Has anyone experienced this? Thank you. Dave

                          I had to chase a commuter train from stop to stop after my college student daughter didn’t meet me at her usual stop. I could see where her phone was using it’s GPS but when I called her she didn’t answer. At the end of the line, I found her passed out and unresponsive on one of the cars. She was transported to the hospital where she spent 15 hours in the ER and a week in ICU.

                          A team of doctors and their support staff could find noting wrong with her and nothing showed up in her to screens. They struggled to keep her blood pressure stable. Her throat was swollen shut so she had a breathing tube shoved down her throat. After the first five hours, I left to play detective.

                          I found an unmarked baggy of a fine brown powder in her book bag. I didn’t know what it was. The hospital staff didn’t know either. An independent testing lab determined it was Kratom. She had apparently consumed a large dose of it and was near death. To make matters worse, sure was having an allergic reaction to it. STAY AWAY FROM THIS SH#T. IT CAN KILL YOU!

                          I have been trying to determine if Kratom affects smell and taste. I just started taking it about 10 days ago and on the 4th day I noticed this burnt hay like smell stuck in the back on my nasal cavity. Then on top of that smell my sense of taste is really dulled. Especially with Salty foods.

                          Things that should be salty feel bland right now. It’s really weird to me. I am coming off buprenorphine. I stopped it the same day I started Kratom. I had serious anger and irritability issues the first week. I assumed it was from the withdrawal though because after the 6-7th day it stopped.

                          I have to admit Kratom feels like an old fashioned Opiate. I am only looking to stay on it another week or two. I feel I’m addicted and I don’t like that feeling anymore. Buprenorphine people say is no good but I believe it’s very beneficial to allow a recovering addict to feel like a normal person again. Kratom makes me feel like an addict again.

                          It’s still better than Vicodin or any drug that tears apart your liver. It deserves to be studied, regulated and offered as a behind the counter supplement. I can’t help but think what would of happened had I found this at an earlier age. It’s an opiate and should be respected as such. Just be careful and know what your doing.

                          Been taking K for about 2 months. Tried various vendors/strains. Best I’ve found so far is Green Malay from TKK. Very personable (service) had to place order via phone due to prob. processing payment on-line. Quantity was accurate. Quality is the BEST I’ve found. Broke out in rash on my legs, halfway through a 4 oz bag.

                          Looked like red bumps. Mosquito bite looking rash. Itched like CRAZY! Discovered through experimenting with various recommended spices (Turmeric, cayenne pepper, black pepper and orange juice) to “enhance” the effectiveness that I’m much better off sticking with the simple mixing w/ water and downing it.

                          Found out this particular strain should be taken an hour after eating. Thought ALL K should be taken on an empty stomach. Am currently now back to just approx. 4 grms at a single dose all by itself (just water to drink it down) and works great. Has a slight opiate type effect alternating/accompanied by a very energetic effect.

                          This is now my FAVE. No more experimenting with spices, or anything else added to it to potentiate. All that just messed me up (rash). Only thing about this strain is that the ‘onset’ (effect) comes later than most. About an hour to an hr and a half later. But it’s well worth the wait.

                          After 6 months of feeling awesome using Kratom and feeling like myself again I had to stop. I noticed as tired feeling when taking my dosages that were always energizing (red Thai, green MD, etc.) then came the itching like I’ve never experienced, then the sore throat (feels like strep thought it was even went to get tested for it) and the kicker… pain under my left rib cage and my ankles started to swell. Not sure why all of this is occurring now, same dosage same vendor but my body is screaming no more… I am sad. I don’t want to go back to taking pain meds for my chronic fatigue and fibro, I was so happy. Now I’m lost again.

                          2+ months since stopping Kratom – Long story but may be helpful to others, so read if you have the chance. I will respond to questions. I’m a relatively long term daily mixer with liquid. I rarely ate while using Kratom for over 3 years. The benefit to side effect ratio seemed near utopian with the exception of constipation.

                          The constipation (I’m prone to this already) lead to halitosis and drinking large amounts of coffee every 3 days to flush my system. Once in awhile I would need prune juice. I felt I was sticky to my natural no processed food diet this was as opposed to taking laxatives. I finally quit. It was a tiny bit difficult and the withdrawals were probably blunted by my very short term use of prescription medication (benzos) to help

                          I’ve heard that long-term use in the manner I used can damage the intestinal villus in your small intestines when taking long periods of time. I don’t how true this is or to what degree, or even how permanent this might be. This could lead to malabsorption of food, etc. I do not know if any of this is true or to what degree it may last if it is true.

                          I’m prone to constipation and medications I am taking now have this side effect so it’s not clear. I lost a lost of weight on Kratom due to it’s appetite suppressant qualities and not taking care of myself, but my appetite right now is simply in the dirt – not due to Kratom so the slowly putting the weight back on is probably normal. I’ve been done with Kratom for 2 months after actually finding very nice MD for a decent price since the scare went in to effect.

                          I tended to stay away from mail. Yeah, they got me. They did what they wanted. Scared vendors a lot more, I imagine. After that unfortunate episode I only purchased from local vendors of which their were two. I would simply drive to their house and purchase in person. Get a cash discount which is always nice.

                          One vendor had bunk, the other vendor had very good MD. Just simple Kratom MD but you know it when you get it after 3 years. Not Green Thai that some sellers love to call their MD. That’s the Kratom gamble. Kratom is like a box of chocolates you never… oh never mind. So two months free and having no real negative effects.

                          I was foolish to do basically toss and wash for so long as it can be harmful to your digestive system I would think. It’s only logical. I would always try for the most fine power I could fine. Talc-like wasn’t a problem to find, but many times vendors exaggerate their powdered leaf.

                          I felt the benefits far out weighed the side effects. It was very cheap in large qualities taking 6.5g 3x a day can be costly if you buy large quantities from good vendors with good contacts overseas. $3-4$ and oz in large quantities was very doable as it’s the same as a Starbucks’s coffee for me and I get all day relief from depression, anxiety, and pain instead of jitters (my back and neck arthritis – will not take prescription medication for this – not yet).

                          Kratom has been a life saver for me. I’ve been using it for over 10 years and it has been key as part of my regime for bipolar disorder. I have none of the long term effects mentioned and this plant has allowed me to live instead of just exist.

                          First it was “Benefit without side effects” for me. After 6 years it changed to “no benefit with side effects”. This is not so easy.

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