2.1: Diversity maps - Biology

2.1: Diversity maps - Biology

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Treemaps placed above are alternatives to dendrograms (“phylogeny trees”) and classification lists (“classifs”). All three approaches are generally equivalent.

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What is Biodiversity?

Biology is the study of all living organisms (plants, animals, microorganisms) and how they interact with each other and their environment. It examines the structure, classification, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution of all living things.

Biodiversity, abbreviated from the terms 'biological' and 'diversity', encompasses the variety of lifeforms found at all scales of biological organisation, ranging from genes to species to ecosystems. The greatest biodiversity is found in the tropical regions of the world, particularly among tropical rainforests and coral reefs. Biodiversity is increased by genetic change and evolutionary processes and reduced by habitat destruction, population decline and extinction. There is a growing recognition that the level of biodiversity is an important factor in influencing the resilience of ecosystems to disturbance.

Biodiversity is a complex term that includes not only the variety of different animals (species diversity) but also the difference between animals of the same species (genetic diversity) and between ecosystems (ecosystem diversity).

Genetic Diversity is the diversity of genetic characteristics (expressed or recessive) within a species (i.e. between individuals and populations of the same species). This component of biodiversity is important because it allows populations to adapt to environmental changes through the survival and reproduction of individuals within a population that have particular genetic characteristics that enable them to withstand these changes. The maintenance of high genetic diversity within populations is therefore a conservation and management priority as this provides the greatest capacity for any population to adapt to a broad range of environmental changes. Conversely, failure to maintain genetic diversity limits the capacity for a population to adapt, making it vulnerable to even small changes in the environment and increasing the likelihood of extinction.

Species Diversity is simply the number and relative abundance of species found in a given biological organisation (population, ecosystem, Earth). Species are the basic units of biological classification and hence, this is the measure most commonly associated with the term 'biodiversity'. Worldwide, about 1.75 million different species have been identified. However, many environments and groups of organisms are not well studied and estimates of species numbers range from 3 to 100 million. Diversity in species is important for economic, biological, social and cultural reasons. Major threats to species diversity are loss of habitat and fragmentation, over exploitations (fishing, hunting, extraction), pollution, the introduction of invasive species (e.g Asian Green Mussels) and global climate change. In order to conserve species diversity, natural resource management and habitat protection are vital.

Ecosystem Diversity can be defined as the variety of different habitats, communities and ecological processes. A biological community is defined by the species that occupy a particular area and the interactions between those species. A biological community together with its associated physical environment is termed an ecosystem.

Partly due to its complexity, biodiversity can be extremely difficult to measure. However, there are a few key indicators of biodiversity that we can accurately and efficiently monitor. For coral reefs these indicators include: seafloor diversity, seagrass, mangroves, seabirds, species of conservation concern and species richness and community structure of hard corals on the GBR.

1.1. introducing biology

1.1.1. introduction to biology understanding the study of biology applying scientific investigation

1.1.2. invitation to biology the process of science hypothesis driven science the culture of science science, technology and society

1.2. investigating the cell as a basic unit of living things

1.2.1. cell structure and cell organisation understanding cell structure and function structure and function of eukaryotic cell understanding cell organisation levels of organization appreciating the uniqueness of the cell

1.2.2. movement of substances across the plasma membrane analysing the of movement of substances across the plasma membrane understanding the movement of substances across the plasma membrane in everyday life appreciating the movement of substance across the plasma membrane cell under the microscope the two major categories of cells a panoramic view of eukaryotic cells a fluid mosaic of lipids and proteins

1.2.4. chemical composition of the cell understanding the chemical composition of the cell understanding carbohydrates understanding lipids understanding protein understanding enzymes realising the importance of the chemical composition in cells the carbon skeleton and functional group the organic molecular of cell the nature of matter elements and compunds number of electron in an atom types of chemical bonds and molecules water's important to life the structure of water properties of water, acid and bases understanding mitosis understanding meiosis appreciating the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.

1.2.8. introduction to molecule biology DNA and RNA structure and function recombinant DNA technology polymerase chain reaction genetic engineering applications

1.3. investigating the physology of living things understanding types of nutrition applying the concept of balanced diet understanding malnutrition analysing food digestion understanding the processes of absorption and assimilation of digested food understanding the formation of faeces and defection evaluating eating habits realising the importance of a healthy digestive system understanding the importance of macronutrients and micronutriences in plant understanding photosynthesis understanding the mechanism of photosynthesis synthesising factors affecting photosynthesis practising a caring attitude towards plants understanding the technology used in food production evaluating the technological development in food processing

1.3.2. introduction to photosynthesis the basic of photosynthesis converting solar energy to chemical energy converting solar energy to chemical energy photosynthesis pigments the electron pathway of the light reactions organization of the thylakoid membrane fixation of carbon dioxide reduction of carbon dioxide regeneration of RuBp understanding the respiratory process in energy production analysis the respiratory structures and breathing mechanisms in human and animal understanding the concept of gaseous exchange across the respiratory surfaces and transport of gases in human understanding the regulation the regulatory mechanism in respiration realising the importance of maintaning a healthy respiratory system understanding respiration in plants metabolic pathways and enzymes cellular respiration metabolic pathway of cellular respiration outside the mitochondria energy- investment step energy- hervesting step inside the mitochondria the citric acid cycle

1.4. investigating the relationship between living thing and the environment understanding the abiotic and biotic components of the environment understanding the processes of colonisation and succession in an ecosystem synthesising ideas on population ecology understanding the concept of biodiversity understanding the impact of microorganisms on life appreciating biodiversity evaluating human activities that endanger an ecosystem understanding the greenhouse effect and thinning of the ozone layer realising the important of proper management activities and the ecosystem

Review of the diversity, traits, and ecology of zooxanthellate jellyfishes

Many marine organisms form photosymbioses with zooxanthellae, but some, such as the medusozoans, are less well known. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the diversity of zooxanthellate jellyfishes, to identify key traits of the holobionts, and to examine the impact of these traits on their ecology. Photosymbiosis with zooxanthellae originated at least seven times independently in Medusozoa of these, five involve taxa with medusae. While most zooxanthellate jellyfishes are found in clades containing mainly non-zooxanthellate members, the sub-order Kolpophorae (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) is comprised—bar a few intriguing exceptions—of only zooxanthellate jellyfishes. We estimate that 20–25% of Scyphozoa species are zooxanthellate (facultative symbiotic species included). Zooxanthellae play a key role in scyphozoan life-cycle and nutrition although substantial variation is observed during ontogeny, or at the intra- and inter-specific levels. Nonetheless, three key traits of zooxanthellate jellyfishes can be identified: (1) zooxanthellate medusae, as holobionts, are generally mixotrophic, deriving their nutrition both from predation and photosynthesis (2) zooxanthellate polyps, although capable of hosting zooxanthellae rarely depend on them and (3) zooxanthellae play a key role in the life-cycle of the jellyfish by allowing or facilitating strobilation. We discuss how these traits might help to explain some aspects of the ecology of zooxanthellate jellyfishes—notably their generally low ability to outbreak, and their reaction to temperature stress or to eutrophication—and how they could in turn impact marine ecosystem functioning.

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Species-diversity and pattern-diversity in the study of ecological succession

A measurable property of any collection of organisms containing more than one species is its “species-diversity”. Methods of measuring species-diversity based on the information content of a collection are reviewed. A collection consisting of a community of sessile organisms, such as terrestrial plants, also has “pattern-diversity”. The pattern-diversity of a community is high when the individuals of the various species are thoroughly mingled so that several species are usually present in any small sub-area it is low if the species are segregated so that small sub-areas are likely to contain individuals of only a few of the species. A method of measuring pattern-diversity is proposed.

The changes that occurred in both species- and pattern-diversity, during periods of five or ten years, in young dense communities of forest trees were observed. It was found that the natural thinning resulting from competition among the trees caused an increase in pattern-diversity.

Present address, Statistical Research Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

A census of pathway maps in cancer systems biology

A key goal of cancer systems biology is to use big data to elucidate the molecular networks by which cancer develops. However, to date there has been no systematic evaluation of how far these efforts have progressed. In this Analysis, we survey six major systems biology approaches for mapping and modelling cancer pathways with attention to how well their resulting network maps cover and enhance current knowledge. Our sample of 2,070 systems biology maps captures all literature-curated cancer pathways with significant enrichment, although the strong tendency is for these maps to recover isolated mechanisms rather than entire integrated processes. Systems biology maps also identify previously underappreciated functions, such as a potential role for human papillomavirus-induced chromosomal alterations in ovarian tumorigenesis, and they add new genes to known cancer pathways, such as those related to metabolism, Hippo signalling and immunity. Notably, we find that many cancer networks have been provided only in journal figures and not for programmatic access, underscoring the need to deposit network maps in community databases to ensure they can be readily accessed. Finally, few of these findings have yet been clinically translated, leaving ample opportunity for future translational studies. Periodic surveys of cancer pathway maps, such as the one reported here, are critical to assess progress in the field and identify underserved areas of methodology and cancer biology.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.


Fig. 1|. Structure of the analysis.

Fig. 1|. Structure of the analysis.

In the analysis presented here, we defined a scope…

Fig. 2|. Cancer systems biology approaches covered…

Fig. 2|. Cancer systems biology approaches covered in this analysis.

Six different approaches are discussed…

Fig. 3|. Coverage of LCpathways by SBmaps.

Fig. 3|. Coverage of LCpathways by SBmaps.

Fig. 4|. Assessment of relative research coverage…

Fig. 4|. Assessment of relative research coverage of cancer pathways by systems biology.

Fig. 5|. representative SBmaps not previously reported…

Fig. 5|. representative SBmaps not previously reported in the literature.

Fig. 6|. Potential new mechanisms emerging from…

Fig. 6|. Potential new mechanisms emerging from cancer systems biology studies.


All necessary data supporting the findings of this study are available as Supporting Information. Data for obtaining the FCM of individuals are available and can be downloaded as Excel spreadsheets on

Appendix S1: Supporting Information

Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.

Watch the video: Maps in Action CA Biological Diversity Map (October 2022).